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英国归还香港的原因。
2020-02-02 Cathy Zhao 5 收藏 纠错&举报
原文标题:Why did the British return Hong Kong to China?
原文地址:https://www.quora.com/Why-did-the-British-return-Hong-Kong-to-China
译文简介:我记得1983年底的时候,我在香港度假,“铁娘子”第一次访问北京是在一年前,最终她登上了长城。我在1990年参观长城时滑了一跤,差点摔倒。哈哈哈哈。 对我来说,作为一个考虑去亚洲某个地方生活的年轻人(我最终选择了香港),整个事情在我看来既迷人又可怕。 看着香港这个资本主义奇迹就在我眼前,想象有一天中国也会变成那样,似乎是不可能的。 当时,由于这些事情,香港的房地产价格和股市当然受到了一些影响。 直到80年代的后半段,人们才真正开始恐慌,大量香港人移民海外(主要是加拿大),放弃在中国香港的工作和生计,出售房
Derek Gould
The British colony of Hong Kong consisted of three parts -
1.Hong Kong island, ceded by China to Britain in perpetuity in 1842, following China’s defeat in the first Opium War
2.Kowloon peninsula, ceded in perpetuity in 1860, following China’s defeat in the Arrow (or Second) Opium War
3.The New Territories (which constitute the majority of the territory’s area), leased by China for 99 years in 1898.
China regarded the treaties by which Britain obtained various parts of Hong Kong as unequal treaties, forced on a weaker nation (China) by a militarily stronger one (Britain). China had long talked about regaining possession when the time was ripe.
When the lease over the New Territories expired in 1997, Britain was obliged to return that part of Hong Kong to China. Legally, it could have kept Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, but these parts were not viable on their own given that the reservoirs, container port, power stations, etc were located in the New Territories.
Even if Britain had kept these parts, they were not defensible militarily and China could have easily forced a British withdrawal by cutting off its supply of fresh meat/vegetables and water.
In short, Britain really did not have much choice or room to negotiate.
So, a deal was struck (the Sino-British Joint Declaration) that Britain would return all parts of Hong Kong to China on the promise that Hong Kong would not be fully reintegrated into China but would become a Special Administrative Region whose way of life would remain unchanged for 50 years after 1997.

英国的香港殖民地,是由三个部分组成的, 
1.中国在第一次鸦片战争中战败后,于1842年将香港岛永久的割让给了英国 
2.九龙半岛,1860年,中国在鸦片战争中战败后永久的割让给了英国 
3.英国于1898年租下中国香港的新界(占香港领土的绝大部分),租期为99年。 
中国认为英国取得香港各部分的条约是不平等条约,是军事强国(英国)强加给弱小国家(中国)的。 在时机成熟的时候,中国一直在谈论重新让中国香港回归的问题。 
当1997年新界租约到期时,英国被迫将中国香港的那部分土地归还给了中国。 在法律上,它本可以保留香港岛和九龙这俩块领地,但由于水塘、货柜码头、发电站等位于新界地区,因此,这俩部分土地对英国来说没有价值。 
即使英国保留了这些部分,这块土地在军事上也是不可防御的,中国可以通过切断其鲜肉,蔬菜和水的供应轻易地迫使英国撤军。 
简而言之,英国确实没有太多选择或谈判得空间。 
所以,达成了协议(中英联合声明),英国将返还所有中国香港地区的土地,香港不会完全重新融入中国,但会以成为特别行政区的方式,在1997年后的五十年内不做改变。 

Alfred W Croucher,1984-1996年在香港居住 
They didn't initially. Thatcher proposed an extension of the British administration of HK as being both in China and HK's interest. Deng's reply rattled her so much she nearly fell down the steps of the Great Hall of the People.
China would resume sovereignty of HK on July 1, 1997 unilaterally if necessary. Thatcher's advice was that they would have no means of resisting an aggressive takeover.
As a result Britain agreed to commence talks for an orderly takeover, something fairly unique in history. The agreement was signed in 1984 and both sides agreed there would be no fiddling with the political system in the meantime.
After 1989.6.4 however, the people of HK panicked and started to seek citizenship of almost any other country. Others lobbied for the British to offer citizenship to any citizen of HK. This started a panic in the UK as people imagined an influx of 6m Honkies.
John Major had to find something for Patten to do as Patten had worked so hard getting Major elected, he lost his own seat of Bath. He knew that HK could be a huge embarrassment as, unlike other colonies, no democratic institutions had been allowed. People were saying the Brits had sold HK for Peking gold.
Patten had to go in and create confidence by bringing in some token reforms and pretending that democracy was such a strong force, Beijing would tremble before it and allow it to pass the handover untouched. This was an obvious lie of course. Beijing was resolute and attacked Patten who had to use all his British charm and cunning to make it seem like the Chinese had reneged on the deal and the British were perfectly at liberty to make the changes needed to 'protect' HK from the evil Commies.
He did well. Most foreigners fell for his line "You're an Australian! You believe in democracy don't you? Surely you businessmen will support us in our attempt to create democratic institutions to protect our former citizens?"
It went down a treat until I arranged for the directors of the Australian Chamber in HK to meet with Zhou Nan of the NCNA - the unofficial Chinese representative office in HK. He played on the colonial hated of the Brits and soon had them eating out of his hand. Another very clever and charming fellow.  

最初,英国并没有归还。 撒切尔夫人建议扩大英国对香港的管理,因为这既符合中国的利益,也符合中国香港的利益。 邓的回答让她慌乱不已,几乎从人民大会堂的台阶上摔了下来。 
如有必要,中国将于1997年7月1日单方面恢复对中国香港的主权。 撒切尔的建议是,他们没有办法抵制激进的接管方式。 
结果,英国同意就有序接管进行谈判,这在历史上是相当独特的。 该协议签署于1984年,双方一致同意在此期间不得对中国香港的政治体系进行任何改动。 
然而,1989年6月4日后,香港人惊慌失措,开始寻求其他任何国家的公民身份。 其他人则游说英国人向所有中国香港公民提供英国公民身份。 这在英国引发了恐慌,因为人们以为会有600万名中国香港人涌入。 
约翰·梅杰不得不给彭定康找点事做,因为彭定康为了让梅杰当选而努力工作,结果失去了自己在巴斯的席位。 他知道香港会成为一个巨大的尴尬,因为不像其他殖民地一样,中国香港没有在他手上建立起民主制度。 人们说英国人把香港卖给了北京。 
彭定康必须介入,通过引入一些象征性的改革,假装民主是一股强大的力量,来建立信心,迫使北京在这股力量前颤抖,然后,让它毫发无损地将权利重新移交回来。 当然,这是一个很明显的谎言。 北京方面很坚决,攻击彭定康。彭定康不得不使用他所有的英国人的魅力和狡猾,让人们觉得中国人背弃了协议,而英国人完全可以自由地做出必要的改变,“保护”香港不受邪恶的中国的侵害。 
他做得很好。 大多数外国人都被他的那句“你是澳大利亚人!” 你相信民主,不是吗? 你们这些商人肯定会支持我们建立民主制度以保护我们的前公民而努力吧?所倾倒。 " 
直到我安排澳大利亚商会在香港的董事们与中国在香港的非官方代表机构的周南会面时,他们才接受了我的邀请。 他利用英国人对殖民地的憎恨,很快就把他们控制住了。 他也是一个非常聪明和迷人的家伙。 

Gus Fuldner, 
Hong Kong was made up of two parts.  Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon peninsula (both very dense urban areas) were ceded to the British perpetually. The New Terriitories (the vast majority of present day Hong Kong by land area) was leased to the British in a 99 year lease that ended in 1997. 
Hong Kong had been largely developed as one unified area which made it impractical to separate urban Hong Kong from the New Territories.  The highways subways and mass transit were all interconnected.  The shipping ports were all in the New Territories.  Residents of the New Territories had the same rights as those in HK Island or Kowloon. 
This left the British with a limited set of options.  Shrinking Hong Kong back to the perpetually British parts wasn't practical.  The Chinese government wasn't going to accept continued British Rule over the New Territories and the British didn't have a solid claim to not give it back. 
Thus the British and Chinese negotiated the return of all of Hong Kong to China in exchange for a guarantee that Hong Kong's economy and government would operate autonomously for at least 50 years after the hand over.  This created the "one country two systems" that we have today where Hong Kong is part of China but operates under a legal and economic system that is largely independent from that in China.

中国香港由两部分组成。 香港岛和九龙半岛(都是人口稠密的市区)永久地割让给了英国。 香港新界(今天香港的绝大部分土地面积)以99年的租期租给了英国人,租期到1997年结束。香港在很大程度上已发展成为一个统一的地区,因此把香港市区与新界区分开是不现实的。 高速公路、地铁和公共交通都是相互连通的。 航运港口都在新界。 新界居民享有与港岛或九龙居民相同的权利。 这给英国留下了有限的选择。 在香港只留下永远属于英国的部分是不现实的。 中国政府不会接受英国继续在新界上的统治,英国也没有理由不归还新界给中国。 因此,英国和中国就香港回归中国进行了谈判,以换取香港经济和政府在移交后至少50年内保持自治的权利。 这就产生了我们今天所拥有的“一国两制”,即香港是中国的一部分,但在很大程度上独立于中国的法律和经济体制下运作。 

Giovanni Siano,一个过着平行艺术生活的商人。 
With the help of what’s written in various articles, can say that Britain was not really willing to return Hong Kong. London did, however, understand the changed realities on the ground. The British Empire had faded into history, the Royal Navy no longer was mistress of the seas. Nor was Communist China still under the Mao era and Deng Xiao Ping more “liberal” economic vision was starting to shine. If push came to shove, Britain could not hope to defend Hong Kong any better than what the Portuguese didn’t achieve in South India. hence no chances whatsoever. Thus, Britain had no realistic choice but to agree to return HKG back to the Motherland after two years of negotiations. Rather than face the humiliation of a forcible Chinese takeover, it negotiated a relatively face-saving graceful exit that attempts to safeguard some rights for Hong Kong residents.
I remember I was in Hong Kong on holiday toward the end of 1983 and the “Iron Lady” did her first visit to Beijing one year earlier culminating with her fell on the Great Wall - well..I slipped and almost fell too when I visited the Great Wall in 1990 the year after Tian An Men..LOL!. To me, as a young man on the thinking to go and live somewhere in Asia (I finally chose Hong Kong) the whole matter did seem to me fascinating and scary at the same time. Looking at this miracle of capitalism Hong Kong was in front of my eyes, and imagining that could one day turn into what China was back then, did seem impossible. Back then properties prices and stock market were of course affected but the events. It was only in the second half of the 80’s that people really started to panic and a good number of Hongkongers migrated oversea (mostly to Canada) abandoning their jobs and livelihood and selling their properties.

在各种文章的叙述中,可以说英国并不是真的愿意归还中国香港给中国。 然而,伦敦确实了解当地已经发生了变化的现实。 大英帝国已成为历史,皇家海军也不再是海洋的女主人。 中国也不是处在毛泽东时代了和邓小平更“自由”的经济愿景开始发光发亮。 如果到了紧要关头,英国也不可能比葡萄牙在印度南部所做的那样,能够更好地保卫中国香港了。 因此英国没有任何机会。 因此,经过两年的谈判,英国别无选择,只能同意将中国香港归还给中国。 英国没有面对被中国强行接管的耻辱,而是通过谈判达成了一项相对体面的退出协议,试图保护中国香港居民的一些权利。 
我记得1983年底的时候,我在香港度假,“铁娘子”第一次访问北京是在一年前,最终她登上了长城。我在1990年参观长城时滑了一跤,差点摔倒。哈哈哈哈。 对我来说,作为一个考虑去亚洲某个地方生活的年轻人(我最终选择了香港),整个事情在我看来既迷人又可怕。 看着香港这个资本主义奇迹就在我眼前,想象有一天中国也会变成那样,似乎是不可能的。 当时,由于这些事情,香港的房地产价格和股市当然受到了一些影响。 直到80年代的后半段,人们才真正开始恐慌,大量香港人移民海外(主要是加拿大),放弃在中国香港的工作和生计,出售房产。 
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