您当前的位置:首页 > 网贴翻译 Tips:使用 ← → 键即可快速浏览其他文章
BBC新闻:中国如何能在10天内建成一个1000床位的医院,这在英国却需要数年时间?
2020-01-31 千岛 3 收藏 纠错&举报
原文标题:How can China build a 1,000 bed hospital in 10 days (BBC News) whereas in the UK it takes years?
原文地址:https://www.quora.com/How-can-China-build-a-1-000-bed-hospital-in-10-days-BBC-News-whereas-in-the-UK-it-takes-years
译文简介:中国正在做的是建立一个应急中心,让患者存活下来,并与社区其他成员隔离,并为其配备军事人员。 该医院不会有太多的诊断科室,也不会比其他一般医院有更多的功能。 所有发达国家一样可以做到,唯一的区别是他们不会称之为“建医院”,而是叫做“建立一个应急中心”。 中国的应对是为了适应当下环境,但不可避免地被其国家宣传机器进行了夸大宣传。 
Paul Clifford
Have you ever played with Lego or a Meccano set?
That is how China can build things what seems instantly.
The reality is they simply bolt pre-assemble modules together. The modules are pre-assembled with most amenities already installed. All you need is a flat-top trailer, a box of spanners, a couple of cranes and a large workforce.
A few years ago there was the typical media hype about the Chinese building a huge multi-storey apartment complex in a week. What the media didn’t tell you is that the modules that were transported to site, lifted by crane and bolted together had been constructed in a vast factory over about 18 months!
Actually, the construction wasn’t done by the PRC (the Chinese as you euphemistically put it) but by a private enterprise owned by a PRC resident, whose business focus was/is the manufacture and installation of air conditioning 
in high rise buildings!
The USA has a similiar enterprise with the same capability, but I guess as the uptake of their process has been slow, their technological answer to construction is too advanced for the small minded.

你玩过乐高或麦卡诺玩具吗? 
这就是中国如何能立即建造东西的原因。 
事实上,它们只是将预先组装好的模块连接在一起。 各个建筑模块是预先组装的,大多数设施也已经预先被安装。 接下来,你所需要的东西只是一辆平顶拖车,一盒扳手,一对起重机和大批劳动力。 
几年前,有一个典型媒体炒作中国在一周内建造了一个巨大的多层公寓楼。 媒体没有告诉你的是,这些建筑模块已经预先被运到建筑工地,用起重机吊起,然后用螺栓固定在一起,这一切都是在一个巨大的工厂里用了大约18个月的时间建成的! 
实际上,这项工程并不是由中国官方完成的,而是由一个中国公民拥有的私营企业完成的,他的私营企业的业务重点是在高层建筑中制造和安装空调! 
美国有一个类似的企业,也具有同样的能力,但我想,由于美国项目的进程往往很缓慢,对于思想狭隘的人来说,他们的技术对于实际建设来说非常先进。 

Tomaž Vargazon
Because the hospital in China won’t look like a real hospital.
Hospitals also don’t take 10 years to build. The actual construction is done within a year or two, it then takes another to carefully install all the diagnostic and treatment machinery of a hospital, all the fixtures, beds and all the rest. It takes ten years because you also need to train the staff and quality personnel takes that long to train (and often more).
What China is doing is an emergency center to keep the patients alive and isolated from the rest of the community and staffing it with military personnel. It won’t have much in the way of diagnostic and it certainly won’t be able to do much more than what it’s designed to do. All developed countries could do about the same, the only difference is they wouldn’t call it “building a hospital” but “setting up an emergency response center”. Chinese response is appropriate for the situation but got beefed up by inevitable propaganda machine of the Party.

因为中国的医院看起来不像真正的医院。 
一般医院的建设也不需要10年。 实际医院的建设在一两年内就能完成,然后需要给医院细心地安装各种各样的诊断和治疗机器,固定装置,床和休息场所。 这总共需要10年的时间,因为你还需要培训员工,而合格的医护人员需要很长的时间来培训(通常还不止十年)。 
中国正在做的是建立一个应急中心,让患者存活下来,并与社区其他成员隔离,并为其配备军事人员。 该医院不会有太多的诊断科室,也不会比其他一般医院有更多的功能。 所有发达国家一样可以做到,唯一的区别是他们不会称之为“建医院”,而是叫做“建立一个应急中心”。 中国的应对是为了适应当下环境,但不可避免地被其国家宣传机器进行了夸大宣传。 

Louis Vaught,伊利诺伊大学香槟分校结构工程硕士(2017年) 
Well, there’s important detail missing here, because the Chinese can’t actually complete a hospital in 10 days.
The reason people are saying a building was “built” is because it was opened in 10 days, but opened and finished are two different things. There’s an unavoidable minimum construction time for a building like this, because it uses a poured concrete foundation:
Poured concrete takes roughly 28 days to cure and dry. You can accelerate the initial curing process so it has usable strength much more quickly than that, but the material will still be curing and drying for weeks. The building can get used in the meantime, but both the poured slab and the rest of the structure need extra maintenance until curing and drying is complete.
Beyond that, accelerated-cure concrete is usually less durable and has lower strength than normal concrete, and sometimes you can get surface cracking that hurts the lifespan of the building. It’s not really something that you want to do if you can avoid it.
When time is of the essence, accelerated construction methods like this make sense, and opening a partially-finished building is a good idea. Still, this isn’t the sort of stuff you want to do unnecessarily. If you want to make buildings that will last, it’s better to sit back and wait for the concrete to cure.
That’s why the Chinese can build an emergency hospital in 10 days, when normally it takes months or years to get one finished. Accelerated construction involves standardizing things and cutting corners, which isn’t normally a desirable construction method. It’s a great fit here, though.
Thing is, if you’re not upfront about that difference, it usually leads to some unreasonable comparisons.
I hope this clears up some confusion.

这里漏掉了一个重要的细节,因为中国人不可能在10天内建成一座医院。 
人们说一座医院“被建成”的原因是因为该医院是在10天内对外开放的,但开放和完工是两码事。 对于这样的建筑工程来说,施工时间不可避免地要缩短,因为它使用的是浇注混凝土进行奠基: 
浇筑的混凝土大约需要28天才能固化和干燥。 你可以加快最初的固化过程,所以地基可以提前被使用,但地基材料仍然需要进行数周地固化和干燥。 建筑可以在那时使用,但浇筑的楼板和结构的其他部分都需要额外的维护,直到固化和干燥完成。 
除此之外,速凝剂混凝土通常比普通混凝土更不耐用,强度也更低,有时会出现表面裂缝,影响建筑物的使用寿命。 如果能避免的话,一般不会采用速凝剂混凝土施工。 
当时间成为关键因素的时候,像这样的加速建设的方法是有意义的,并且同时开放部分已经完成的建筑是没错的。 尽管如此,不是必要也不会采取这种方法。 如果你想让建筑物经久耐用,最好是坐着等混凝土凝固。 
这就是为什么中国可以在10天内建立一个紧急医院,而通常建一所医院需要几个月或几年才能完成。 加快建设涉及标准问题和偷工减料,这通常不是一个理想的建设方法。 不过它在中国很合适。 
问题是,如果你对这种细节差异不明晰,通常会让你产生一些不合理的比较。 
我希望上述事实能澄清一些疑惑。 

Martin Sebastian
1.Because centralized governing gives CCP a plenty of room to act fast without having to get through all those time and energy consuming political bullshit.
In a democratic nation, a state or national emergency must be declared before you can relocate. Even if a governor or president declared state emergency, there is still a chance to be challenged and overturned by the House of Representatives or the Senate. You can expect a long endless debate instead of fast responsive action. Without a state or national emergency declared, government would have to negotiate with every single individual property owners about the compensation, relocation time window, etc. And until agreement is reached, there is nothing can be done. Usually such negotiation will end up in the court house and take years to settle.
Another thing is, in democratic nations, sometimes or most of the time, politicians put their own interests over national urgency. Rival party might as well stand in the way in purpose, just to make sure the current administration fails miserably to give them the huge advantage in the next general election, or perhaps a good excuse for impeachment. Or in other words, legal sabotage in broad daylight.
This shit doesn't happen in China. In China, technically CCP can formulate a draft, pass it as a bill and make it effective within the same day. In any democratic nation, this process will take at least 2–3 months. Usually longer.
2. The other factor is, China has been doing heavy construction projects nationwide in a massive scale for decades, non-stop. They already have everything they need to carry out the task. Engineers with decades of real experience, an army of skilful construction workers, ready to mobilize heavy machineries, stockpile of materials, location, pretty much everything. It only takes one direct order from the top, everything set in motion in no time.
3. Apparently China learned a lot from the SARS outbreak an made a comprehensive mitigation plans just in case another outbreak happens. That hospital structure is not something you can design from the scratch overnight.
So, given all the conditions have to be met, I believe I'm not exaggerating if I say this is a thing that only China can make happen.
Anyway, let's hope for the best.

1.因为中央集权统治给了中国足够的时间来快速行动,而不必经历那些耗费时间和精力的政治空谈。 
在一个民主国家,在决定可以搬迁医院之前,必须宣布州或国家进入紧急状态。 即使州长或总统宣布国家进入紧急状态,仍有机会被众议院或参议院质疑和推翻。 你可以预见一场旷日持久的无休止的辩论,而不是快速的反应行动。 在没有宣布国家或州进入紧急状态的情况下,政府将不得不与每一个单独的业主就补偿、搬迁时间等问题进行谈判。 在达成协议之前,什么也做不了。 通常这样的谈判最终会在法庭上解决,并且需要几年的时间。 
另一件事是,在民主国家,有时或大多数情况下,政客们把自己的利益置于国家的紧急状态之上。 反对党也可能故意阻挠,只是为了确保现任政府在下届大选中惨败,不给现任政府巨大的优势,或者也许是一个弹劾的好借口。 或者换句话说,这是一种在光天化日之下合法破坏的行为。 
这种事情在中国不会发生。 在中国,从技术上讲,可以制定一个草案,并将它通过,使其成为一个法案,并使该法案在同一天生效。 在任何一个民主国家,这个过程至少需要2-3个月的时间。 通常还会更长。 
2. 另一个因素是,几十年来,中国一直在全国范围内大规模地、不间断地进行大型建设项目。 他们已经拥有完成该任务所需的一切材料。 拥有数十年实际经验的工程师,技术娴熟的建筑工人,随时准备调动的重型机械,储备材料,建设地点,几乎一切工程要素都具备。 它只需来自上级的一声令下,然后就可以立即开始各项行动。 
3.显然,中国从SARS的爆发中学到了很多,并制定了一个全面的缓解计划,以防再次爆发。 医院的结构不是一夜之间就能设计出来的。 
因此,考虑到必须满足的所有条件,我认为,如果我说这是一件只有中国才能做到的事情,这种说法并不夸张。 
不管怎样,祈祷一切会变好吧。 

Peter Stokes, 问题终结者(已经退休) 
Because they’re not building a hospital, they’re building a warehouse to hold lots of people with a single, communal illness. No operating theatres, waiting rooms, comfortable wards with plentiful facilities, staff canteens, ambulance facilities, AE (ER). No need to keep separate patients with different illnesses, they all gave the same illness. And authoritarian government doesn’t need to negotiate for land, let competitive contracts to ensure value for taxpayers money, or recruit workers - authoritarian government just says “make it so” and everyone does as they’re told.

因为他们不是在建造医院,而是在建造一个仓库来容纳许多患有单一疾病的人。 没有手术室,等候室,舒适的病房与丰富的设施,员工食堂,救护车设施,急救室。 没有必要把不同疾病的病人分开,因为他们都得了同样的病。 威权政府不需要通过谈判获得土地,不需要通过竞争性合同来确保纳税人的钱物有所值,也不需要招聘工人——威权政府只会说“就这样做”,然后,每个人都会照做。 
环球旅行
请文明理性发言,请不要发布违规评论,包括但不限于(诋毁、极端、敏感、歧视、色情、引战、人身攻击)等,如发现此类评论,请不要回复,直接举报。网站意见建议请点击 意见反馈
我要纠错&举报
文章地址
纠错类型
备注说明
 
我要举报
文章地址
举报理由
 
打赏评论
1、如果您喜欢此评论,可以对其打赏
2、不鼓励对违规评论(包括但不限于违法、辱骂、歧视等)进行打赏,系统将可能回收对其的打赏
充值