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为什么欧洲几千年来一直反对犹太人?
2020-01-24 夏丶沐瑾 5 收藏 纠错&举报
原文标题:Why has Europe been against Jews for thousands of years?
原文地址:https://www.quora.com/Why-has-Europe-been-against-Jews-for-thousands-of-years
译文简介:不同类别的少数族群长期以来一直受到迫害,特别是如果大多数人认为少数族群不愿从众的话。从同性恋者到吉普赛人再到犹太人,任何不符合主流思想的人都会受到迫害。
反犹太主义比中世纪的瘟疫还要古老。它最初起源于埃及人,通过埃及人传到希腊人那里,希腊人指责犹太人不崇拜他们的神,不接受希腊文化。罗马人追随希腊人的偏见,对以色列人很差。他们的目光从异教移向以色列的基督教后,这种偏见增加了,而不是减少了,因为犹太人现在被指控谋杀了基督。
Balaji Viswanathan 
Minorities of different categories have been persecuted for a long time especially if the majority perceives that the minority is disinclined to hop on the bandwagon. From homosexuals to gypsies to jews, anyone not conforming with mainstream ideas were persecuted.
Antisemitism is older than plagues of the middle ages. It originally started with the Egyptians and through them went to the Greeks who accused the Jews of not worshipping their gods & not adopting Greek culture. Romans followed the Greek bias and treated the Israelis poorly. After moving from paganism to the Israeli religion of Christianity the bias increased rather than decreased as the Jews were now accused of murdering the Christ.
As Islam brought the threat of expansion to Europe, there was a greater consolidation of the papal power and an increased discrimination of non-Christians. Some of the biggest massacres were made as a part of the crusades.
Whenever a crisis occured - such as the Black death or a major war - the Jews were quickly blamed as they stood out and were different. 
As Jewish people were barred from most professions, they gravitated to money lending and this made things worse. People hate bankers in general and Jewish people’s success in banking brought a lot of resentment.
Jewish people are well-networked and people often hate other cultures that are well-networked and accuse them of being closed. The successes of such a closed network brings envy and distrust.
Jews are scarcely the only ones to be discriminated against. But, their discrimination stand out because:
1. They survived in the face of adversity. Most communities that face such persecution either join the bandwagon or perish.
2. Every time they were pushed to a corner they prospered. They made the proverbial lemonade when lemons were thrown at them. Jews were forbidden from other jobs, thus became excellent bankers. When then bankers got kicked out of Bavaria, their members got to the newly growing USA and pushed carts to eventually become great there. When pushed to the bottom on WW2 they created a successful state of Israel. This rising from ashes part about them brought further hatred.
3. They are able to bring out the stories of despair better than other discriminated communities - such as the gypsies.

不同类别的少数族群长期以来一直受到迫害,特别是如果大多数人认为少数族群不愿从众的话。从同性恋者到吉普赛人再到犹太人,任何不符合主流思想的人都会受到迫害。
反犹太主义比中世纪的瘟疫还要古老。它最初起源于埃及人,通过埃及人传到希腊人那里,希腊人指责犹太人不崇拜他们的神,不接受希腊文化。罗马人追随希腊人的偏见,对以色列人很差。他们的目光从异教移向以色列的基督教后,这种偏见增加了,而不是减少了,因为犹太人现在被指控谋杀了基督。
随着伊斯兰教给欧洲带来了他们要扩张到欧洲的威胁,教皇权力得到了更大的巩固,对非基督徒的歧视也有所增加。一些最大规模的屠杀发生在十字军东征中。
每当发生危机,如黑死病或重大战争,犹太人很快就会受到指责,因为他们与众不同。
由于犹太人被禁止从事大多数职业,他们倾向于提供货币借贷服务,这使事情变得更糟。人们普遍憎恨银行家,而犹太人在银行业的成功为他们带来了许多怨恨。
犹太人有良好的人际网络,人们常常讨厌其他文化有良好的人际网络,并指责他们是封闭的。这样一个封闭人际网络的成功带来了嫉妒和不信任。
犹太人不是唯一受到歧视的群体。但是,对他们的歧视很突出,因为:
1. 他们在逆境中幸存了下来。面临这种迫害的大多数族群要么会加入那一潮流,要么灭亡了。
2. 每一次他们被逼到墙角时,他们就兴旺发达起来。当有人向他们扔柠檬时,他们就制作众所周知的柠檬水。犹太人被禁止从事其他工作,因此成为了优秀的银行家。当银行家们被赶出巴伐利亚州时,他们的成员进入了新兴的美国,并在那里推动着事业最终变得伟大。当他们在二战中垫底时,他们建立了一个成功的以色列国家。他们能从灰烬中重生,这给他们带来了进一步的仇恨。
3. 他们能够比其他受歧视的群体——比如吉普赛人——更好地讲述绝望的故事。

Nick Taplin
I’ve never really understood the depth of rage that people have felt against Jews, but there do seem to be a few recurring themes, both across Europe and the middle east which might go some way to explaining it. Personally I have never understood why anyone believes in any religion, much less feels the need to hate someone else because of theirs, but hey.
Anyway, my thoughts in no particular order are:
1. Judaism has been around for so long, and teaches phlegmatism so well, that other religions have seen them as an easy target 
2. Jews often were allowed to do jobs that others weren’t, making them pre-packaged targets for aggression. The most obvious example is that Christianity forbade usury, but Jews were allowed to practice it. As a consequence, Jews would lend money to wealthy and powerful people, and as soon as those people needed to repay the debt, they discovered that it was easier to simply mobilise the population to murder the Jews than to pay them back
3. This sort of thinking persists to this day in caricatures of Jews as being greedy, money-loving oppressors who just want to exert power over ‘decent’ people. It’s no more fair now than it ever was, but it’s easy to convince people with big lies and basic insults
Essentially, people feel it’s OK to hate Jews because people are stupid, and people in power find it easy to manipulate stupid people.

我从来没有真正理解过人们对犹太人的愤怒有多深,但似乎确实有一些反复出现的主题,在整个欧洲和中东都有,这或许可以在某种程度上解释它。就我个人而言,我从来都不明白为什么人们会信仰任何宗教,更不用说因为别人的宗教而去憎恨他们了。
不管怎样,我的想法并没有特别的顺序:
1. 犹太教已经存在了这么久,但其他宗教认为他们是容易攻击的目标。
2. 犹太人经常被允许去做别人做不了的工作,这使他们预先成为被侵犯的目标。最明显的例子是,基督教禁止放高利贷,但允许犹太人放高利贷。因此,犹太人会把钱借给有钱有势的人,一旦这些人需要偿还债务,他们就会发现,动员民众去杀害犹太人比偿还更容易。
3. 这种想法一直延续到今天,在漫画中,犹太人被描绘成贪婪、爱钱的压迫者,只会对“正派”的人施加他们的权力。现在和以前一样不公平,但现在用谎言和基本的侮辱来说服人们是很容易的。
从本质上说,人们觉得仇恨犹太人是可以的,因为这些人们很愚蠢,掌权者很容易操纵这些愚蠢的人。

Tim Doherty
First off, it’s not thousands, it’s a thousand and odd years - if we’re talking about Europe. I believe the first recorded pogrom in Europe was in Spain in 1066. Not that this would make things acceptable, just to be accurate.
My understanding of the whole thing is that “wandering” Jews were allowed to settle in cities across Europe. They weren’t allowed to own land, or any kind of real estate. When it’s the Middle Ages and you can’t live off the land, or can’t lease out property, your options become limited. Some Jews were dirt poor, perhaps most.
But they would help out each other, no matter how little they’ve had. If you were a Jew and came into a village or a city, the Community would take you in, give you something to do, and take care of you. This is probably because they’ve all lived through harsh times and most of them have benefited the good treatments of their own kind at some point. Judaism, I believe, encourages this behavior, too.
Funny thing is that this community mentality made them join resources together. Those most fortunate would help out the unlucky ones. So they were all kind of better off than each fending for himself. Once they started having money, they would put them together and create a rudiment of a bank, they would lend out money. One of the few things they were allowed to do. Another one was trade. They became good merchants. And jewelers.
But the most amazing part is that by studying Torah, and by being keen observers of the laws of God, they became good interpreters of the written word. They needed to adapt newness in their life by observing the written word old of over 5000 years. So yes, they’ve became great lawyers, too.
As you can see, they were forced into trades where physical effort was not needed. All that during a time where mechanization was nowhere in sight, and the easiest thing to sell was your strength.
Now let’s say the very people that laughed at Jews’ efforts when the harvest was good, are hitting a dry patch in their agricultural endeavors: hail, drought, heavy rain in the fall, you get the idea. The price of food would go up, and guess who had money to buy?… To “add insult to the injury” the Jewish New Year starts in September… So you have the peasants and the city dwellers that don’t have much to eat, and the Jews are celebrating, candles on. And you owe them money for the seeds you bought in the spring. 
Another thing is that they did not have a country, a king, somebody to defend them. You could not attack the Italian neighborhood in Belgium on the same premises as you did the Jews, as Italy would take that as an act of war. But nobody was there to defend the countless Jewish victims of the pogroms. No king, no country…
To sum it up: different, successful financially, educated, defenseless. And all together in a dedicated neighborhood and in a somewhat closed community. Speaking a language very few outsiders understood, if any. These are the main reasons. That, and our “need” to point at others for our misfortune…

首先,如果我们说的是欧洲,那不是反对了犹太人几千年,而是1000多年。我相信欧洲有记载的第一次大屠杀发生在1066年的西班牙。这并不是为了让事情变得可以让人容易接受,只是为了确保准确。
我对整件事的理解是,“流浪”的犹太人曾被允许在欧洲各地的城市定居。但他们不被允许拥有土地或任何形式的房地产。到了中世纪,当他们不能以土地为生,或者不能出租财产,他们的选择就变得有限了。有些犹太人一贫如洗,也许是最穷的。
但是他们会互相帮助,不管他们拥有的多么少。如果你是犹太人,来到一个村庄或城市,犹太人社区会接纳你,给你一些事做,并照顾你的。这可能是因为他们都经历过艰难的时期,他们中的大多数人都曾受益于自己同类的友好帮助。我相信犹太教也鼓励这种行为。
有趣的是,这种社区心态让他们把资源连接在了一起。那些最幸运的人会帮助那些不幸的人。所以他们都不单单只是能养活自己,他们有富余的钱。一旦他们有了钱,他们会把这些钱放在一起,形成一个银行的雏形,他们会把钱借给别人。这是他们被允许做的为数不多的事情之一。另一件他们被允许做的事是贸易。他们成了好商人,好珠宝商。
但最令人惊讶的是,通过学习圣经旧约之首五卷,通过敏锐地观察上帝的律法,他们成为了文字的良好解释者。他们需要通过观察5000多年前的文字来适应生活中的新事物。是的,他们也成为了伟大的律师。
正如你们所看到的,他们被迫进入了不需要体力劳动的行业。这一切都曾发生在一个看不到机械化的时代,那时人们最容易推销的东西就是力量。
现在让我们假设那些在丰收时嘲笑犹太人努力的人。他们在他们的农作中遇到干旱、冰雹、干旱和在秋天下的大雨时,他们就知道了。食品价格会上涨,猜猜谁有钱买? 更糟糕的是,犹太人的新年在九月开始。那时农民和城市居民没有什么吃的,而犹太人在庆祝,在点上蜡烛。你们还欠他们钱,你们用那些钱在春天买了种子。
另一件事是他们没有国家,没有国王,没有人来保护他们。你不能像袭击犹太人那样,在比利时的意大利社区发动袭击,因为意大利会把这视为战争行为。但是没有人在那里保护在大屠杀中无数的犹太受害者。因为他们没有国王,没有国家……
总而言之: 与众不同,在经济上成功,受过教育,无法受到保护,并且在一个封闭的社区里,说着一门很少有外人能懂的语言。这些是主要原因。以及我们“需要”把自己的不幸归咎于他人……

Geoff Caplan
I would like to challenge the common perception that Jews in some way attract more hatred than other minorities and out-groups.
Humans are tribal, and an out-group in any culture will often experience persecution. We see this throughout history and into the present - witness the current persecution of the Hindus in Pakistan, the Kurds in Turkey, the Christians in Lebanon, the Muslims in Myanmar, the Buddhists in Vietnam… The hatreds and violence can be just as strong as any form of antisemitism.
But most out-groups eventually assimilate or simply give up and emigrate to an area where they are in the majority. So the persecution gradually dies out.
The unique factor in antisemitism is that Jewish communities often retain their distinctive culture within the host society for very long periods, allowing institutionalised antisemitism to take a deep hold. for hundreds of years there was often nowhere European Jews could emigrate to escape persecution.
I once read a convincing, data-based study which argued that the level of persecution experienced by the Jews is no different from that experienced by any out-group. It’s just that the Jews have been an out-group for longer than anyone else.

我想挑战一种普遍的看法,即犹太人在某种程度上比其他少数族群和外群体更容易招致仇恨。
人类是部落性的,任何文化中的一个外群体都会经常遭受迫害。从历史到现在,我们都看到了这一点——巴基斯坦的印度教徒、土耳其的库尔德人、黎巴嫩的基督徒、缅甸的穆斯林、越南的佛教徒都受到了迫害……这些仇恨和暴力与任何形式的反犹太主义一样强烈。
但大多数外来群体最终会被同化或干脆放弃,去移民到一个他们占多数的地区。这样对他们的迫害就逐渐消失了。
反犹主义的独特之处在于,犹太社区通常会在其所在社会中长期保留其独特的文化,从而使制度化的反犹主义得以根深蒂固。数百年来,欧洲的犹太人往往无处可逃,无法逃离迫害。
我曾经读过一份令人信服的、以数据为基础的研究报告,该报告认为,犹太人所遭受的迫害程度与任何外部群体所遭受的迫害程度并无不同。只是犹太人作为一个外群体的时间比其他群体都长。
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