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英国是怎么用规模这么小的军队把自己打造成世界强国的呢?
2020-01-24 Cathy Zhao 4 收藏 纠错&举报
原文标题:How can the UK class itself as a world power with such a small military?
原文地址:https://www.quora.com/How-can-the-UK-class-itself-as-a-world-power-with-such-a-small-military
译文简介:好吧,首先,除非世界上的其他人都认为你是“世界强国”,否则你称自己为“世界强国”并不重要。世界上其他国家对英国的实力都有很高的评价。很多国家都能很好地保护自己。很少有人能投射力量。在军力投射方面,美国可能是全球首屈一指的军事强国。
Joe Willmore
Well, first of all, it doesn’t matter if you call yourself a “world power” unless the rest of the world regards you as one. And the rest of the world has a pretty high regard for power of the UK.
1. Lots of countries can defend themselves just fine. Very few can project force. The US is probably the premier military in the world at force projection. Well, the UK is up there as well—they may be better at force projection over great distances than any other country (besides the US) in the world. And that means if you’re…Argentina, and decide to pick a fight with the UK (even if it’s next door to you). Or you’re the Taliban or Saddam Hussein and you think you only need to worry about the US. Well, then you figured wrong. Between their Navy, their alliances, their force structure (which has some outstanding elite units that travel light but carry a big punch), and the RAF, the UK military can cover a lot of ground and has traditionally been expected to cover a lot of ground. It’s the legacy of having been a world Empire.
2.Competence of the force. There are some good units out there. But then there are some elite units. And a lot of them are British. All of the US military I’ve talked to who trained with or fought along side (Iraq, Afghanistan, Desert Storm) British personnel always praised their professionalism and competence. Frankly, the Brits probably outperformed the conventional US forces in the initial occupation of Iraq after Saddam was deposed.
3. Strategic acumen. The senior British military leadership is quite good. There are a number of reasons why this is so. But the Brits “do war” quite well and this is partially a function of having senior officers who know their stuff and it’s partially a function of having a very lean and stripped down military. 
4. Intelligence. I don’t mean the Brits are smart. I mean that MI-6 is first-rate. While it’s common for every military to trash talk about their spooks, the reality is that SIS does a superb job interacting with their military in a manner that usually provides good actionable intelligence, especially HUMINT. All of the British intelligence people I ever interacted with in some fashion I had a high regard for. The Brits get that intelligence is critical for a small but robust military and it serves as a force multiplier.
5. And yeah, they’ve got nukes and are part of NATO so that helps too. if you have those assets (nuclear weapons and NATO alliance) that gives you some heft.
Ultimately it’s a mistake to judge the ability and performance of a military based on their number of troops. Underestimate the British military at your own peril.

好吧,首先,除非世界上的其他人都认为你是“世界强国”,否则你称自己为“世界强国”并不重要。世界上其他国家对英国的实力都有很高的评价。
1. 很多国家都能很好地保护自己。很少有人能投射力量。在军力投射方面,美国可能是全球首屈一指的军事强国。好吧,英国也一样——他们可能比世界上任何其他国家(除了美国)都更擅长远距离武力投射。这意味着,如果你是阿根廷人,决定与英国开战(即使英国就在你隔壁),或者你是塔利班或者萨达姆·侯赛因,你认为你只需要担心美国的话,那你就想错了。得益于它们的海军、联盟、部队结构(拥有一些轻装上阵但威力巨大的优秀精锐部队)和英国皇家空军,英国军队可以用武力覆盖很多地方,而且传统上一直被认为可以覆盖很多地方。这是一个世界帝国的遗产。
2. 部队的实力。英国有一些不错的部队,但也有一些精英部队。其中很多部队成员是英国人。与我交谈过的所有与英军一起训练或并肩作战(伊拉克、阿富汗、沙漠风暴)的美国军人总是称赞他们的专业精神和能力。坦率地说,在萨达姆被推翻后,在对伊拉克的最初占领中,英国人的表现可能超过了美国常规部队。
3.战略智慧。英国军方的高级领导层相当不错。原因有很多。但是英国人“打仗”打得很好,这部分是由于他们的高级军官了解他们自己的情况,部分是由于他们的军队非常精简。
4. 智力。我不是说英国人很聪明。我是说军情六处是一流的。虽然每个军队都经常说他们的间谍是垃圾,但事实是,英国秘密情报处在与他们的军队互动方面做得很好,通常提供很好的可操作的情报,特别是人工情报。所有我曾以某种方式与之交流过的英国情报人员,我都非常敬重。英国人明白,情报对于一支规模虽小但强大的军队至关重要,而且情报还能带来事半功倍的效果。
5. 是的, 他们已经有了核武器, 也是北约的一部分, 这也是有帮助的。如果你拥有这些资产(核武器和北约联盟),你就有了一定的影响力。
最后,根据军队的人数来判断军队的能力和表现是错误的。低估英国军队,后果自负。

Michael Randles
1st off: The UK doesn’t classify itself as a world power. It hasn’t since the Empire broke up after WW2.
2nd: Our military may be small, but you can’t deny the effectiveness, and the results it has, plus the ability to be anywhere in the world at a moments notice.
3rd: We train for ALL contingencies, partly due to having an empire in the past that spanned the entire globe, we’ve been everywhere you can think of; sweltering jungles, freezing tundras, sandy deserts, temperate fields, urban centres…Our troops are trained to be the most capable units in any environment.
that said, there ARE reasons we’re no longer a world power:
1. Economic clout: we’re not in the top 3
2. Size: I’m sorry but it does matter, even the best trained soldiers will eventually run out of bullets.
3. Resources: We rely on other nations for vital resources such as oil, our military is routinely ill equipped, sometimes it’s so bad that only half of a squad will have the necessary body armour (it’s getting better but these things take time). Any nation that relies upon another for vital resources cannot be called a world power.
In summary: The UK is not a world power, but it is a respected voice on the world stage. We don’t need to be a world power, we’re the guys you call in when you want the job done right.

第一:英国并不认为自己是世界强国。自从二战后帝国分裂以来,它还没有成为过强国。
第二:我们的军队可能很小,但你不能否认它的有效性,它所取得的成果,以及随时待命去往世界任何地方的能力。
第三:我们的军队被训练得可以承受意外情况,部分原因是过去我们有一个横跨全球的帝国,我们到过你能想到的任何地方; 闷热的丛林,寒冷的冻土带,沙漠,温带的田野,城市中心……我们的军队被训练成在任何环境下都是最有能力的部队。
也就是说,我们不再是世界强国是有原因的:
1.  经济影响力: 我们不在前三名。
2.  规模: 我很抱歉,但这很重要,即使是最训练有素的士兵最终也会用完子弹。
3. 资源: 我们依赖其他国家的重要资源,如石油,我们的军队经常装备不良,有时情况很糟糕,一个班只有一半的人会有必要的防弹衣(情况正在好转,但这些事情需要时间)。任何一个国家的重要资源依赖于另一个国家,都不能被称为世界强国。
简而言之: 英国不是一个世界强国,但它在世界舞台上是一个受人尊敬的国家。我们不需要成为世界强国,但当你们想要把事情做好时,我们是你们所需要的人。

Alistair Phillip
1. the UK armed forces are the best trained in the world.
2. The U.K. has the best pilots in the world.
3. The U.K. has the best and latest military equipment in the world.
4. The U.K. has always had a small army compared to their opponents, and has always won.
5. The U.K. has submarines lurking all over the world with enough firepower to destroy any nation entirely at a moments notice if the U.K. is hit with an attack, even if the entire U.K. mainland is destroyed.
6. The U.K. has extremely strong alliances all over the world, alliances that are historic, based on shared values, shared culture, even shared citizens. A war with the U.K. would be a war with much of the world.
7. The U.K. doesn’t have the biggest navy, but it is without any doubt, the most effective on the world, thus rendering any invasion attempt pointless by sea.
8. The U.K. has the highest trained pilots on earth with the best aircraft on the planet, any planned aerial bombardment of Britain wouldn’t even reach Britain before being shot out of the sky.

1. 英国军队是世界上被训练得最好的。
2. 英国有世界上最好的飞行员。
3. 英国拥有世界上最先进的军事装备。
4. 与对手相比,英国的军队规模一直很小,但总是会赢。
5. 英国的潜艇潜伏在世界各地,即使整个英国大陆被摧毁,只要一接到通知,这些潜艇的火力也足以在瞬间彻底摧毁任何一个国家。
6. 英国在世界各地都有非常强大的联盟,这些联盟具有历史意义,是基于共同的价值观,共同的文化,甚至是共同的公民的。与英国的战争将是与世界大部分地区的战争。
7. 英国没有最强大的海军,但毫无疑问,它有世界上最有效用的海军,因此,任何通过海上入侵英国的企图都是毫无意义的。
8. 英国拥有世界上训练最有素的飞行员,拥有世界上最好的飞机,任何计划对英国进行的空中轰炸在其被击落之前都不会到达英国。

Thomas Jones
Because a large military is not that useful in the nuclear age and the UK have sophisticated weapons, strategies and tactics that mean a large military is not needed.
They have multi-dimensional power i.e. political, cultural, financial power. They can get the US to do what they want them to do (like Israel does). Fighting large conventional wars are a thing of the past we are in 4th generation warfare and in that regard the UK is very advanced.
The strategy of the UK has always been to balance forces by setting powerful countries against each other, that way they don’t need to most of the actual fighting.
Ultimately they have nuclear weapons if all else fails as a deterrent. You might say but they only have 240 warheads, who cares. It is worth noting that all it would take to end civilisation as we know it is a war of about 250–300 mid sized nukes and you could assume that the other side would use at least 240 nukes in retaliation.
So in summary, instead of having massive numbers of troops and tanks etc, the UK has just the right amount of resources in each area to achieve it’s goals, in a word they are much more efficient at allocating resources to achieve their goals than say the US or Russia.

因为在核时代,一支庞大的军队不是那么有用,而英国拥有先进的武器、战略和战术,这意味着它不需要一支庞大的军队。
他们拥有多维度的权力,即政治、文化、金融权力。他们可以让美国做他们想让他们做的事情(就像以色列做的那样)。打大规模的常规战争是过去的事了,我们处于第四代战争阶段,在这方面英国是非常先进的。
英国的战略一直是通过让强大的国家互相对抗来平衡力量,这样他们就不需要进行大部分的实际战斗。
如果所有这些都不能起到威慑作用,他们最终会使用核武器。你可能会说,但他们只有240枚弹头,管它呢。值得注意的是,我们所知道的结束文明所需要的一切是一场会被发射250-300枚中型核弹的战争,你可以假设对方如果会使用至少240枚核弹进行报复,会导致什么结果。
总而言之,英国并没有大量的军队和坦克,而是在每个地区都有适量的资源来实现它的目标,简而言之,英国在资源分配上比美国和俄罗斯更有效率。

Ernest W. Adams
It has nuclear weapons and a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. It also is one of the few countries with a blue water navy.
The UK also does not hesitate to send its troops into harm’s way, and its special forces are world class. 

它拥有核武器,是联合国安理会常任理事国。它也是少数几个拥有蓝水海军的国家之一。
英国也能做到毫不犹豫地将军队派往危险的地方,其特种部队是世界级的。

Bill Lattanzio
The UK is firstly a nuclear power. Secondly, it has strong currency. Right there you have to put them up there among the world powers.
Britain’s military may be small, but it is well trained and well equipped. Britain has a modern navy, a modern Air Force, an excellent intelligence network, and some of the best special forces in the world. You also can’t discount the fact that Britain has some pretty powerful allies that are highly unlikely to abandon them.
Britain may not be able to sustain a large expeditionary force, but neither can most countries. What Britain can do is defend herself. Couple that with technological prowess and economic strength and you have a world power.

英国首先是一个核国家。其次,它有强大的货币。你必须把他们放在世界强国的行列中。
英国军队也许规模不大,但训练有素,装备精良。英国拥有现代海军、现代空军、优秀的情报网络和世界上最优秀的特种部队。你也不能忽视这样一个事实: 英国拥有一些相当强大的盟友,它们极不可能会抛弃英国。
英国可能无法维持一支庞大的远征军,但大多数国家都无法做到。英国能做的是保护自己。再加上其科技实力和经济实力,它就是一个世界强国了。
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