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为什么中东似乎总是处于战争和骚乱之中?
2020-01-23 虎瘦雄心在 4 收藏 纠错&举报
原文标题:Why does the Middle East always seem to be at war and in riots?
原文地址:https://www.quora.com/Why-does-the-Middle-East-always-seem-to-be-at-war-and-in-riots
译文简介:在这个地区有一场争夺经济主导地位的斗争。由于该地区自然资源丰富,中东国家竞争力很强,试图在邻国中发挥影响力,特别是沙特阿拉伯和伊朗。一个是逊尼派,另一个是什叶派。自从埃及陷入经济危机以来,沙特阿拉伯就成为了地区强国。另一方面,伊朗一直试图挑战现状,发挥自己的影响力。
Julian Alin, Global Citizen
For many reasons:
There is a struggle for economic dominance in the region. Since there so many natural resources are abundant in the region, Middle Eastern countries are very competitive and try to be influential among their neighbors, especially Saudi Arabia and Iran. One is Sunni, the other Shi’a. Ever since Egypt has been in an economic crisis, Saudi Arabians become the regional power. Iran on the other hand, has been trying to challenge the status quo and exert its own influence.
The Sunni/Shi’a divide has been diverging more and more as time goes on. As above mentioned, there is a struggle for power between Sunni and Shi’a leaders. In some Middle Eastern countries, such as Syria and Iraq, there is a significantly large (or even majority) Sunni population, though the government is controlled by Shi’a officials and politicians. This creates an imbalance between the interests of the population and the government. In Syria, this is one of the many factors of the rebellion against Assad.
Since it’s creation in 1948, Israel has been a disruption of Middle Eastern order in that several Arab states has consistently teamed up and attacked the Jewish State. For the past several decades, some countries, such as Egypt, have tried to become more friendly Israel and promote peace in the region. This has only led to greater conflict between the Arab states, increasing the divide on the intensity of opposition against Israel.
Since the fall of the Ottoman Empire after WW1, the land of the Levant and parts of Arabia had been divided by the Sykes-Picot Agreement in 1916. France claimed present-day Syria and Lebanon, as well parts of Turkey and Iraq, whereas Britain claimed the rest of Iraq, and parts of present-day Jordan, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. Palestine was administered internationally, overlooked by the League of Nations. This carving up of non-homogeneous people fragmented tribes and nationalities , leading to many conflicts lasting to this day.
All of these reasons have contributed to the fracturing and fighting of the Middle East, though the current situations are extremely complex and are a challenge to modern foreign policy.

Julian Alin,全球公民。
有很多原因:
在这个地区有一场争夺经济主导地位的斗争。由于该地区自然资源丰富,中东国家竞争力很强,试图在邻国中发挥影响力,特别是沙特阿拉伯和伊朗。一个是逊尼派,另一个是什叶派。自从埃及陷入经济危机以来,沙特阿拉伯就成为了地区强国。另一方面,伊朗一直试图挑战现状,发挥自己的影响力。
随着时间的推移,逊尼派和什叶派之间的分歧越来越大。如上所述,逊尼派和什叶派领导人之间存在权力斗争。在一些中东国家,如叙利亚和伊拉克,逊尼派人口数量巨大(甚至占多数),尽管政府是由什叶派官员和政治家控制的。这就造成了人口利益与政府之间的不平衡。在叙利亚,这是反阿萨德叛乱的诸多因素之一。
自1948年建国以来,以色列一直在破坏中东秩序,因为几个阿拉伯国家一直联合起来攻击这个犹太国家。在过去的几十年里,一些国家,如埃及,一直试图变得对以色列更友好和促进该地区的和平。这只会导致阿拉伯国家之间更大的冲突,加剧反对以色列的激烈程度的分歧。
自从奥斯曼帝国在一战后灭亡以来,黎凡特和阿拉伯半岛的部分地区在1916年被赛克斯-皮科协议分割。法国声称对现在的叙利亚和黎巴嫩,以及土耳其和伊拉克的部分地区拥有主权,而英国声称对伊拉克的其余部分,以及现在的约旦、以色列、沙特阿拉伯和科威特的部分地区拥有主权。巴勒斯坦是由国际组织管理的,国际联盟忽视了它。这种对非同质群体的划分,分裂了部落和民族,导致许多冲突持续至今。
所有这些原因都造成了中东的分裂和战斗,尽管目前的局势极为复杂,是对现代外交政策的挑战。

Roger H Werner, BS History & Geography, Belknap College (1972)
The Israeli occupation of Palestine in 1948 and the dispossession of the legal owners of their property remains an open sore. I’m not sure this will ever be resolved.
Israel’s taking of the Golan Heights, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, Gaza, and Sinai in 1967. Sinai was returned in the late 1970s ending war with Egypt. The other lands remain occupied and that diesn’t make Muslims in the Middle East happy.
Control of the third most significant religious place in Islam; the Done of the Rock mosque.
Continuance of Israeli settlements in the West Bank contrary to several UN Security Council Resolutions.
Continued US financial support to Israel in spite of the fact that Israel continues to defy UN resolutions.
Continued Israeli over reactions to stupid Hamas rocket attacks.
US presence in Saudi Arabia, which possesses two of Islam’s holiest sites (Mecca and Medina).
Continued US drone attacks in Muslim countries killing thousands of civilians including children (and innocent babies) as collateral damage. P

Roger H Werner,贝尔克纳普大学历史与地理学士学位(1972年)。
1948年以色列对巴勒斯坦的占领和对其财产合法所有人的剥夺仍然是公开的痛处。我不确定这个问题会得到解决。
1967年,以色列占领了戈兰高地、约旦河西岸、东耶路撒冷、加沙和西奈。西奈半岛在20世纪70年代末被归还,结束了与埃及的战争。其他的土地仍然被占领,这让中东的穆斯林很不高兴。
控制了伊斯兰世界第三重要的宗教场所;岩石清真寺。
以色列继续在约旦河西岸建立定居点违反了联合国安理会的几项决议。
尽管以色列继续无视联合国决议,美国仍继续向以色列提供财政支持。
以色列继续对伊斯兰抵抗运动愚蠢的火箭弹袭击做出反应。
美国在沙特阿拉伯的存在,那里有两个伊斯兰教最神圣的地方(麦加和麦地那)。
美国在穆斯林国家持续的无人机袭击造成了包括儿童(和无辜婴儿)在内的成千上万的平民死亡。

Jack Ye, studied Mathematics & Economics
Middle East was relatively peaceful before the UN decided to establish a “Jewish nation” in Middle East at current Israel location.
Middle East was relatively peaceful before the USSR and the US lay their hands on it.
Middle East was not a chaotic as now before George Bush decided to disobey the UN and invaded Iraq to wage a war against terrorism.
The Middle East becomes a playground for the powerful nations. That is why it is always chaotic.

Jack Ye,学习数学与经济学。
在联合国决定在以色列所在地建立一个“犹太国家”之前,中东相对和平。
在苏联和美国染指中东之前,中东是相对和平的。
在乔治·布什决定违反联合国决议、入侵伊拉克发动反恐战争之前,中东并不像现在这样混乱。
中东成为强国的游乐场。这就是为什么它总是混乱的原因。

Will Jessop
As other answers have mentioned there’s the rivalry for influence between different powers, the main traditional rivalry is Saudi and Iran but there are also others. The result of these rivalies is usually proxy wars whereby they fund warring factions in different states. There is also problem of resource scarcity. This is not just land and water but jobs and employment. All the countries have a growing youth population a high percentage of whom are unemployed. Take the frustration at lack of employment then add in corrupt governments and lack of political freedoms and you get big resentment.
On top of those you have other specific issues like the dispute between Israel and the palastinians plus also the disastrous American-British intervention in Iraq that created a power vaccum and upset the regional balance.

Will Jessop
正如其他答案提到的,存在着不同势力之间的影响力竞争,主要的传统竞争是沙特和伊朗,但也有其他国家。这些竞争的结果通常是代理人战争,他们资助不同国家的交战派系。还有资源短缺的问题。这不仅是土地和水,而且是工作与就业。所有这些国家的青年人口都在增长,好多人失业。再加上腐败的政府和缺乏政治自由,就会产生巨大的怨恨。
除此之外,还有其他具体的问题,比如以色列和帕拉斯提尼亚人之间的争端,以及美英对伊拉克的灾难性干预,这种干预造成了一种权力真空,破坏了地区平衡。

Ziaddinè Chahoudi
I feel these instabilities there must have related to do with the past. As for everyone state, there are a lot of things behind repeated unrests in the region.
Land of Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. But even with that they are very divided and tried to subject others.
The loss of Ottoman Empire and the Sykes-Picot treaty, that divided the region into abyss.
Oil, the source of economic prosperity in the world locates there.
Ethnic and country's nationalism arose within.
Iran: a Shi'a Islamic powerhouse who want to takeover Mecca and Medina from the Saudis. They spread their own way.
Saudi Arabia: the guardian of two Holy Cities who hates Iran to deep and recently hostile against Turkey.
Turkey: newcomer by name but they have been there since 1500s. Always desire to rebuild the Ottoman might.
Israel: an opportunist who is willing to use instability for its interests. Developing alliances with Turkey and Saudi Arabia but does not trust them.
With these power disputes it extended into regional war.

Ziaddinè Chahoudi
我觉得这些不稳定一定与过去有关。对于每个国家来说,在这个地区反复发生的动乱背后有很多原因。
伊斯兰教、基督教、犹太教和拜火教的发源地。但即便如此,他们还是非常分裂,并试图让别人服从。
奥斯曼帝国的覆灭和赛克斯-皮科协定,将该地区分裂成深渊。
石油是世界经济繁荣的源泉。
民族和国家的民族主义在内部兴起。
伊朗: 一个希望从沙特手中接管麦加和麦地那的什叶派伊斯兰强国。它们以自己的方式传播。
沙特阿拉伯: 两个圣城的守护者,对伊朗深恶痛绝,最近对土耳其充满敌意。
土耳其: 名字是新来者,但他们从16世纪就在那里了。总是渴望重建奥斯曼帝国的力量。
以色列: 一个机会主义者,为了自己的利益而利用中东不稳定性。与土耳其和沙特阿拉伯发展联盟,但并不信任他们。
随着这些权力争端,它扩展到地区战争。

Muhammad Faiz Osama
The sole reason was the Sykes-Picot agreement after the disintegration of Ottoman empire. Ottoman empire was the sole force which was keeping the peace in the middle east intact but it was seen as a threat to imperialist endeavors of British and French empire. Under Lawrence of Arabia British government planted the seed of nationalism between the different people of the same region which led to the infighting among Arabs and turks. This conflict continued to this day on, Religion is just an excuse for these power hungry demagogues. All they want is power.

Muhammad Faiz Osama
唯一的原因是奥斯曼帝国解体后的《赛克斯-皮科协约》。奥斯曼帝国是维护中东和平的唯一力量,但它被视为对英法帝国帝国主义努力的威胁。在阿拉伯的劳伦斯的统治下,英国政府在同一地区不同群体之间播下了民族主义的种子,导致了阿拉伯人和土耳其人之间的内讧。这场冲突一直持续到今天,宗教只是这些渴望权力的煽动者的借口。他们想要的只是权力。

Robert Nguyen, former (Retired)physician
I have been wondering why, why why they can’t find peace in the Middle East. That is not new. that has been since the known history of human race.
Looking around the world. Yes there has been war all over the world. But no where one would find the continuous war. Eventually people would find common ground to stay in peace next to one another. But no, not in the Middle East.
Than I start to think. May be, it is the belligerent mentality of local people that prevents them from finding their common interests. Each sees just their interest, unable to see others’ side.
Well I do hope one day, after all these thousands of years, the people of this part of the world would find peace. They can’t blame “others” for their own failure to make peace with one another.

Robert Nguyen,前(退休)医师。
我一直在想为什么,为什么他们不能在中东找到和平。这并不新鲜。从人类已知的历史开始。
放眼世界。是的,世界各地都发生过战争。但是没有地方可以找到持续的战争。最终,人们会找到彼此和平共处的共同基础。但不,在中东不能。
然后我开始思考。也许,正是当地人好战的心态使他们无法找到共同的利益。每个人看到的只是自己的利益,看不到别人的一面。
好吧,我真希望有一天,在经历了几千年之后,这个地区的人们能找到和平。他们不能因为自己无法与他人和平相处而责怪“他人”。
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