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二战中的法国坦克是世界上最好的。 那么,为什么法国还是输掉了战争呢?
2020-01-26 Lina 5 收藏 纠错&举报
原文标题:The French tanks in WWII were some of the best in the world. Why did they lose the battle for France?
原文地址:https://www.quora.com/The-French-tanks-in-WWII-were-some-of-the-best-in-the-world-Why-did-they-lose-the-battle-for-France
译文简介:很好的 Char Bis坦克也会被5或6个pzkw III摧毁,因为它们可以协同攻击Char Bis坦克的侧翼和它的薄弱部位。 只有在几次战斗中,盟军才集中起来,并取得了一些胜利。 在阿拉斯、阿布维尔和芒克纳特,最初的进攻还算顺利;在集中火力的进攻中,这些坦克相对来说不受德国37毫米机枪的伤害。 但德国军队更灵活,最终用88高射炮、大炮和斯图卡导弹阻止了法国的进攻。 由于装甲部队没有步兵支援,法国被迫撤退。 而且,在某种程度上损失惨重。 
Bill Soo,勤杂工,软件工程师 
French tanks were a mixed lot. Sure, the Somuas and Char Bis were better than anything the Germans had, but they had a lot of mediocre cavalry tanks like the R-35 as well.
And even the Somuas and Char Bis had issues.
Both had two men turrets where the commander doubled as a loader. In contrast, the German pzkv III and IV both had three men turrets where the commander could concentrate on commanding.
Radios were in short supply. The platoon commander usually had a radio but had to direct the other tanks of his platoon with flag signals. Given the limited visibility when buttoned up, it was an awkward system for both platoon leader and individual tank commanders, especially since, as said, the commanders had to be loaders as well. In contrast, all German tanks had radios.
Similarly, there may have not have been internal intercom systems. I'm not sure of this point. But if not, it would have been difficult for the commander to direct the driver. In contrast, all German crew members had headphones and throat mikes (these picked up vibrations directly from the throat so ambient noise would not get picked up).
These are technical flaws of the French tanks, but the greater issue was lack of training and inferior doctrine.

French armoured divisions were split into small units (“penny packets”) and dispersed along their front to directly support the infantry. As such, they could not achieve local superiority against the Germans who concentrated their tank forces in powerful numbers. Even a superior Char Bis is going to be destroyed against 5 or 6 pzkw III that can coordinate their efforts to flank the Char and hit its weak spots.
It was only in a couple of battles that the Allies concentrated and when they did, they enjoyed some success. At Arras, Abbeville and Montcornet, the initial attacks did well; in the attack and concentrated, they were relatively invulnerable to German 37mm AT guns. But the Germans were more flexible and eventually stopped the attacks with FlaK 88s, artillery and Stukas. Because the armor had no infantry support, they were forced to fall back. In some cases with heavy losses.
Its easy to look at and compare vehicles, but the important part is the people who command and operate them. That's not so easy to see.

法国坦克是混合装备的。 当然,法国人的索玛S和Char Bis坦克比德国人的任何坦克都要好,但法国也有很多像R-35这样的普通骑兵坦克。 
即使是索玛S和Char Bis 坦克也存在不足之处。 
两种坦克都有两个人的炮塔,指挥官兼任装载人员。 相比之下,德国的pzkv III和IV坦克都有三个人的炮塔,指挥官可以集中精力指挥。 
通讯装备供应不足。 排长通常有一台通讯机,但他必须用旗子信号指挥其他坦克。 考虑到战斗时的能见度有限,这是一个尴尬的操作,特别是因为,正如刚才所说,无论是排长还是个别坦克指挥官,他们必须同时兼任装载人员的工作。 相比之下,所有德国坦克都有无线电设备。 
同样,法国军队可能也没有内部对讲系统。 这一点我不敢肯定。 但如果法国也没有,那么指挥官就很难指挥坦克驾驶员了。 相比之下,所有的德国机组人员都戴着耳机和喉部麦克风(这些麦克风能直接捕捉到喉部的振动,这样周围的噪音就不会被捕捉到)。 
这些是法国坦克的技术缺陷,但更大的问题法国军队是缺乏训练,因此理论知识不足。 
法国装甲师被分成小股(“小包”),分散在前线,直接支援步兵。 因此,他们无法取得对德国人的局部优势,因为德国人集中了大量的坦克部队。 即使是一个装备很好的 Char Bis坦克也会被5或6个pzkw III摧毁,因为它们可以协同攻击Char Bis坦克的侧翼和它的薄弱部位。 
只有在几次战斗中,盟军才集中起来,并取得了一些胜利。 在阿拉斯、阿布维尔和芒克纳特,最初的进攻还算顺利;在集中火力的进攻中,这些坦克相对来说不受德国37毫米机枪的伤害。 但德国军队更灵活,最终用88高射炮、大炮和斯图卡导弹阻止了法国的进攻。 由于装甲部队没有步兵支援,法国被迫撤退。 而且,在某种程度上损失惨重。 
观察和比较车辆很容易,但更为重要的是指挥和操作车辆的人。 这不是那么容易分析的。 

John Dewar Gleissner, 40多年的历史迷 
France lost the battle for France in 1940 because:
The Germans attacked in the Netherlands and Belgium first, as a diversion, causing the French and British to move north to fight them, as the Germans expected.

The Germans by-passed the Maginot Line with aggressive, fast-moving armored columns, just a few days after the French moved to the north.

The Germans were offense-minded; the French had a defensive mentality. German blitzkrieg was a far more modern doctrine and tactic than French tank doctrine. German tanks coordinated their attacks with radios in each German tank. German initial offensive columns were all on wheels, supported by air power.
The French were not expecting an attack through the Ardennes, had a less experienced infantry division there to defend, had moved their forces north to fight the Germans in Belgium, and were surprised by an attack to their rear moving rapidly to the coast.
The Germans put their best tanks in the divisions led by Guderian and Rommel. The Germans had armored units leading the attack, with motorized infantry; while the French most often had their tanks spread out among infantry divisions. Some French tanks were slower or outdated and many had one-man turrets, forcing the commander to do too much at one time, but many of their tanks were superior to the German tanks. The German Panzers communicated with each other via radio, and so were very coordinated.
The top French commander Gamelin was old, ill, old-fashioned, did not have telephone connections to his units, and was preparing to fight WW1 all over again.
The Luftwaffe had complete air superiority and wiped out the British and French bombers (44% shot down) attacking the River Meuse bridges and bridgeheads. The French Air Force was relatively inactive and untrained compared to the Luftwaffe.
The French in some cases panicked and were intimidated by the sound of Stuka dive-bombers, which the Germans used as artillery.
French officers and soldiers had poor morale, some fought hard, but others simply did not fight as hard as the Germans, and would sometimes surrender without having fought.
The French were divided between left and right, not unified under a war leader.

法国在1940年的法国保卫战中失败了,是因为: 
德国人首先进攻荷兰和比利时,作为一种转移,导致法国人和英国人北上与他们作战,这一切正如德国人所预料的那样。 
就在法军向北挺进的几天后,德军带着进攻性强、快速移动的装甲纵队绕过了马其诺防线。 
德国人具有进攻性;法国人抱着一种防御心态。 德国闪电战是一种比法国坦克更现代的作战理论和战术。 德国坦克用每辆德国坦克上配备的无线电来协调攻击。 德军最初的进攻纵队都装上了轮子,由空军支援。 
法国人没有料到会从阿登山脉发起进攻,因为那里只有一个缺乏经验的步兵师在防守,他们已经将部队向北移动,与比利时的德国人作战,而且他们对后方的一次迅速向海岸移动的攻击感到吃惊。 
德国人把他们最好的坦克放在古德里安和隆美尔领导的师。 德国人有装甲部队和机动步兵领导进攻;而法国人最常让他们的坦克分散在步兵师中进攻。 一些法国坦克速度较慢或过时了,并且许多都有单人炮塔,即使他们的许多坦克都优于德国坦克,但这迫使指挥官在同一时间做太多的事情。 德国装甲部队通过无线电互相联络,因此非常协调。 
法国最高指挥官甘末林年事已高,身体虚弱,思想陈旧,与他的部队没有电话联系,并且正准备再次参加第一次世界大战。 
德国空军拥有完全的空中优势,歼灭了攻击默兹河大桥和桥头堡的英法轰炸机(击落44%的战机)。 与德国空军相比,法国空军相对不活跃,缺乏训练。 
在某些情况下,法国人被斯图卡俯冲轰炸机的声音吓得惊慌失措,而德国人则把斯图卡俯冲轰炸机当作大炮。 
法国官兵士气低落,有些人打得很卖力,但有些人就没有德国人打得那么卖力,有时甚至不战而降。 
法国人分为左右两派,在战争领袖的领导下没有统一。 

Jan Boen,高级预备役军官(比利时陆军),非常了解第二次世界大战和第一次世界大战的历史 
France had some good tanks like the Somua S35 and the Char 2B and they outclassed the Pz I and Pz II and found an equal in the Pz III.
Biggest problem for the French was their outdated doctrine and antiquated leadership.
This includes both army and air force usage. Don’t forget the tactical superiority and local air superiority by the Luftwaffe flying air cover and close air support missions.
When using their tanks skilfully the French could stop or even beat the Germans as e.g. shown by De Gaulle.
The Blitzkrieg doctrine and the Guderian panzer tactics bagged the French and all other powers in 1939 and 1940, including the Brits.
The Germans had some daring Divisional and Corps commanders who went outside their book and realised the big win in France in May/June 1940.
If the Top Generals had been followed the victory would have been less pronounced as they were much more cautious and old fashioned in their thinking.

法国有一些很好的坦克,比如Somua S35和Char 2B,它们的水平超过了Pz I和Pz II,并且与Pz III能平起平坐。 
法国人最大的问题是他们过时的教条和过时的领导。 
这包括对于陆军和空军的使用。 不要忘记德国空军的战术优势和在当地的空中优势。 
如果法国人能熟练地使用他们的坦克时,他们可以阻止甚至击败德国人。 戴高乐就是个很好的例子。 
闪电战理论和古德里安的装甲战术在1939年和1940年将法国和包括英国在内的所有其他国家纳入囊中。 
德国人有一些大胆的师长和军团指挥官,他们打破常规,在1940年5月/ 6月在法国取得了重大胜利。 
如果那些高级将领们也跟着这样做的话,这场胜利就不会那么容易了,因为他们的思想要谨慎得多,也更老派。 

George W. Kucera, 对二战历史进行了广泛研究 
The French lost the war because of inferior leadership, tactics, unit organization and lack of proper training.
The fact that the Char heavy tank was virtually impenetrable by German land forces is well documented. However, they were slow and the war was over so fast, they only were engaged in a few minor skirmishes. The Stuka dive bombers made short work of most of them at the key points where they were impeding the progress of the blitzkrieg that cut the allied forces in two.
Since the Germans massed their panzer units and had them coordinate with mobilized infantry, they were able to easily outmaneuver and outnumber the French tanks that were mostly allocated piecemeal among the infantry units. World War I assumptions led to inferior organization and tactics that cost the French an early exit from the War. Many French units surrendered with most of their fighting power intact because they were befuddled, often after their HQ was overrun, with no ability to cope with what was going on.
Superior tanks mattered little because all else was very unequal.

法国人之所以输掉这场战争,是因为他们的领导能力、战术、单位组织较差以及缺乏适当的训练。 事实是,Char重型坦克几乎无法穿透德国地面部队,这是有据可查的。 然而,这些坦克行动缓慢,而战争结束得很快,他们只参与了几次小规模的战斗。 斯图卡俯冲轰炸机在阻碍将盟军一分为二的闪电战进程的关键时刻,对大部分轰炸机进行了短暂的攻击。 由于德国人集结了他们的装甲部队,并让他们与调动起来的步兵协同作战,他们能够轻易地在机动和数量上超过法国的坦克,而法国的坦克大多是在步兵部队中零零散散地分配的。 对于第一次世界大战的假设,导致了他们采取了低级的组织和战术,使法国人过早地退出了战争。 许多法军军队投降时,他们的大部分战斗力都没有受到影响,因为他们经常在总部被占领后感到困惑,无法应对所发生的一切。 高级坦克并不重要,因为其他一切因素都是不平等的。 
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