您当前的位置:首页 > 网贴翻译 Tips:使用 ← → 键即可快速浏览其他文章
为什么以色列如此富有和繁荣?
2020-01-27 虎瘦雄心在 6 收藏 纠错&举报
原文标题:Why is Israel so wealthy and prosperous?
原文地址:https://www.quora.com/Why-is-Israel-so-wealthy-and-prosperous
译文简介:他们从美国获得大量援助,包括军事援助,这实际上帮助了他们最大的产业之一——军事装备的生产——成为世界上最大的出口产业之一。
Bill Hansen
Because of many reasons. One is they get tons of aid from the U.S, including military packages, which essentially helps one of their biggest industries, the production of military equipment, to be among the largest exports in the world.
Also it’s essential that they are a highly functional society, because in spite of the large aid they receive, they still need to stay ahead of the other nations surrounding them, which are, without any overstatement, enemies of Israel.

Bill Hansen
因为许多原因。一是他们从美国获得大量援助,包括军事援助,这实际上帮助了他们最大的产业之一——军事装备的生产——成为世界上最大的出口产业之一。
此外,他们是一个高度运转的社会,这一点也很重要,因为尽管他们得到了大量援助,他们仍然需要领先于他们周围的其他国家,这些国家毫不夸张地说都是以色列的敌人。

Anonymous
Because they live from hand outs from countries and I’m talking tax payers money, AMERICAN tax payers money.
According to the Congressional Research Service, the amount of official US aid to Israel since its founding in 1948 tops $134 billion (adjusting for inflation, roughly $252.7 billion as of March 2018),
In the past few decades it has been on the order of $3.1 billion per year.
(In 2014, for example, this amounted to $8.5 million every single day, and today totals over $10.4 million per day)
Israel gets all of its aid money at the start of each year, rather than in quarterly installments like other countries
Now if you was given that kind of money you’d be filthy rich because you bank this and make the money work for you. You earn money immediately from the interest.
So isreal isn’t so mighty or rich by itself.

匿名网友
因为他们是靠各国救济生活的,我说的是纳税人的钱,美国纳税人的钱。
根据国会研究服务处的数据,自以色列1948年建国以来,美国对以色列的官方援助总额超过1340亿美元(根据通货膨胀调整后,截至2018年3月,援助总额约为2527亿美元)。
在过去的几十年里,这个数字一直保持在每年31亿美元左右。
(以2014年为例,这一数字达到了每天850万美元,如今每天超过1040万美元)
以色列的所有援助资金都在每年年初发放,而不是像其他国家那样分季度发放。
现在,如果你得到了那笔钱,你会变得非常富有,因为你可以把这些钱存入银行,让钱为你工作。你马上就能从利息中赚到钱。
所以以色列本身并不是那么强大或富有。

Alan Stein, lives in Israel
Israel isn’t that wealthy and prosperous, but it’s done reasonably well. It owes much of its success to the hostility of its neighbors, which has forced it to be innovative just to survive. Outmanned and outgunned by far larger enemies bent on its destruction, Israel has been forced to make the most of what it has and many of the innovations forced on its military have made their way into civilian areas. Also, its children mature quickly and learn initiative when they’re forced to serve in the defense of their country and transfer their skills to the civilian economy when they finish their service.

Alan Stein,住在以色列。
以色列不是那么富裕和繁荣,但它做得相当好。它的成功在很大程度上归功于邻国的敌意,这迫使它为了生存而创新。以色列在人数上和武器上都远远落后于决心摧毁它的更大的敌人,它被迫充分利用它所拥有的资源,而强加给它的军事上的许多革新已经进入了民用领域。此外,当孩子们被迫为保卫国家而服役时,他们会迅速成熟并学会主动,当他们服役结束时,他们会将自己的技能转移到民用经济中。

Shai Israeli
israel is not “ so wealthy”. it’s quite prosperous due to the importance of learning in the jewish traditions. (which stand out in the neigbourhood).

Shai Israeli
以色列并不“那么富有”。由于在犹太传统中学习的重要性,它相当繁荣。(在邻近地区很显眼)。

Jonathan Danilowitz, Activist - human & animal rights; translator/journalist.
Wealthy - not really.
Prosperous - and how!
The answer lies in the Jewish tenet of education, education and more education. In Gaza, for example, school textbooks teach children racism, antisemitism and hatred. 
Many do not yet understand that Israel’s battle against Islamic terror is the battle for Europe’s future.

Jonathan Danilowitz,人权和动物权利活动家;译者/记者。
富有——其实不是。
繁荣——的确!
答案在于犹太人的宗旨——教育,教育和更多的教育。例如,在加沙,学校教科书教导儿童种族主义、反犹主义和仇恨。

Oded Ben-Josef, lives in Israel
Well, firstly, calling Israel “wealthy” is an exaggeration. Israel is not anywhere near the top of the world’s wealthiest countries, it is ranked #32, close to South Korea and Spain.
Israel is, however, not a poor country, and has an advanced economy, featuring the well known “start up nation” phenomenon (there are about 5,000 hi-tech start ups in Israel, probably more than in half of Europe; Europe has 741 million people, Israel has 9 million).
The explanation for this is not simple, there are many reasons. It involves improper queuing, an improvised country, using hands, The nail that sticks out gets hit on the head, arguments, brawls in parliament, unsuitable suits, invading personal space, wars, “schnorr country”, Russian immigration, working in weekends, the art of picking allies, feminism and … movie subtitles.
Israelis are, on average, very motivated towards higher level education and career success. 46% of Israelis aged 25–64 hold an academic degree, considerably above the 28% average of OECD countries (2013). Pursuing a high education is still a status symbol in Israel; for many Israelis, having a BA or an MA is more important than having a Mercedes. 
Israel was conceived as a country-project to provide sanctuary for any persecuted Jew worldwide. Naturally, a lot of the Jewish diaspora (Jews living abroad) were inclined to support this project, after all, it is their insurance policy, in case non-Jews again get ideas. Israel received considerable donations, particularly in its early years (1948–1960). 
But was the money indispensable to Israel’s very survival? I, personally, doubt it. Why? simple. The 600,000 Jews in 1948 Palestine had no other choice, with or without donations; money isn’t the only thing that makes the world go round, but motivation counts as well. Some countries float on oil, yet most of their population is still poor and uneducated, sadly. Israel also received billions of dollars as reparations for the Holocaust from West Germany, in the early 1950’s. Israel mainly used those reparations to absorb millions of Jewish refugees from Europe, Africa and Asia, more than tripling its population by 1960. Note however, that by 2019, 70% of Israelis were born in Israel.
Israel is not a purely capitalist economy, but not a stifling socialist economy either; the government retains some regulatory control over certain fields. Academic education in Israel is subsidized by the state - not free, but low cost. Basic education is free.
This “free” is expensive, of course, as Israelis endure high taxes. A gallon of petrol costs $7 in Israel, nearly three times the average U.S. price, due to government taxes. Banks in Israel are tightly regulated by the state, preventing collapses such as the real estate bubble in the U.S., or Bernie Madoff style scams. Healthcare in Israel is also subsidized. 
Israelis, in the Jewish tradition, love arguments, criticism, and are taught to make their opinion heard, from a very young age, whether it is their place or not, and whether they are well informed or not. This gives them the advantage of …. well, critical thought, at least in principle. Most of the worst criticisms of Israel, come from Israel itself. 
During the Israeli war of independence in 1948, Israelis faced Arab tanks with homemade Molotov cocktail bombs and motley “Davidka” mortars, which made more noise than actual damage to the enemy. Such spirit seems to be alive and well today. 
Israel is the only country in the Middle East where women’s fundamental rights are equal; women are massively participating in the economy, and have been since Israel’s independence in 1948. Women are half the population of any society. Any society that excludes women from high education, top jobs or leadership positions, simply shoots itself in the foot, economically. Israel had a woman prime minister, Golda Meir, 1969–1973, one of the first countries in the world to be led by a woman. That being said, Israel, like any other society, has its share of remaining chauvinist issues and glass ceilings to deal with.
While Israel was briefly supported by the Soviets initially (1947–1948), it later picked western allies and patrons: Germany, France, and ultimately (from 1973) the United States. Eventually, Egypt followed suit, switching patrons to the U.S., while signing an American brokered peace agreement with Israel in 1979. Israel made a peace treaty with Jordan in 1994; subsequently, the threat of Arab coalitions attacking Israel, seems considerably reduced.
Capitalism has many shortcomings, but as the saying goes, it is the worst system…except for the others. Israel slowly evolved, from socialist beginnings (early Zionism) towards free market economics and high technology industries.
American presidents come and go, but after 1973, the American defence establishment decided that Israel is important to them. After all, in Israel you can always dock an aircraft carrier for supplies or repairs, without having to check which dictator is ruling the country this week.The U.S. consequently supports Israel with an estimated $3 billion of grants annually, although this is only a small part of the Israeli national budget of $138 billion (2018). As with most American foreign policy, it “has strings attached” and is designed to serve U.S. interests: much of the sum is conditional upon buying American products and services, usually military hardware. An estimated 50,000 U.S. jobs depend on Israeli military purchases. Grants to Israel are just the tip of the iceberg of the total American foreign aid tab, which amounts to around $43 billion annually (Afghanistan gets 4.5 billion, Iraq 1.8, Egypt 1.3, etc.)
That being said, Israel’s economy isn’t critically dependent on U.S. aid, but the close ties between the two countries are beneficial to Israel, and project a kinship of emphasis on technology, pursuing a qualitative edge in industry and the military. Enthusiasm and support for the U.S., politically and culturally, is typically high in Israel.

Oded Ben-Josef,在以色列生活。
首先,说以色列“富有”是夸大其词。以色列并不是世界上最富有的国家,它排在第32位,接近韩国和西班牙。
然而,以色列并不是一个贫穷的国家,它拥有发达的经济,以著名的“创业国家”现象为特色(以色列大约有5000家高科技创业公司,可能超过一半的欧洲国家;欧洲有7.41亿人口,以色列有900万)。
平均而言,以色列人对更高层次的教育和职业成功非常感兴趣。年龄在25-64岁之间的以色列人中,46%拥有学位,大大高于经合组织国家(2013年)28%的平均水平。在以色列,追求高等教育仍然是地位的象征;对许多以色列人来说,拥有学士或硕士学位比拥有一辆奔驰更重要。
以色列被认为是一个为全世界所有受迫害的犹太人提供避难所的国家。当然,很多犹太人(居住在国外的犹太人)倾向于支持这个项目,毕竟,这是他们的保险政策,以防非犹太人再次获得想法。以色列收到了相当多的捐款,特别是在其初期(1948-1960年)。
但是,这些钱对以色列的生存是不可或缺的吗? 我个人对此表示怀疑。为什么? 很简单。1948年巴勒斯坦的60万犹太人没有其他选择,无论有没有捐款;金钱不是使世界运转的唯一因素,但动机也很重要。有些国家靠石油为生,但可悲的是,大多数人口仍然贫穷且未受过教育。20世纪50年代初,以色列还从西德获得了数十亿美元的大屠杀赔款。以色列主要利用这些赔款来吸收来自欧洲、非洲和亚洲的数百万犹太难民,到1960年,以色列人口增加了两倍多。然而,值得注意的是,到2019年,70%的以色列人出生在以色列。
以色列不是一个纯粹的资本主义经济体,但也不是一个令人窒息的社会主义经济体;政府保留了对某些领域的监管控制。以色列的学术教育由国家资助——不是免费的,而是低成本的。基础教育是免费的。
当然,这种“免费”是昂贵的,因为以色列人要承受高额的税收。在以色列,每加仑汽油的价格为7美元,几乎是美国平均价格的三倍,原因是政府税收。以色列的银行受到政府的严格监管,防止了美国房地产泡沫或伯尼·马多夫式的欺诈等崩溃。以色列的医疗保健也得到补贴。
在犹太人的传统中,以色列人喜欢争论、批评,而且从小就被教导要让别人听到他们的意见,不管这是不是他们的立场,不管他们是否消息灵通。这给了他们优势——批判性思维,至少在原则上是这样。对以色列最糟糕的批评大多来自以色列内部。这就是为什么从外部批评以色列通常是无效的。
在1948年的以色列独立战争期间,以色列人面对阿拉伯坦克时使用自制的燃烧弹和杂色的“大卫卡”迫击炮,这些迫击炮对敌人造成的伤害比实际造成的伤害更大。这种精神今天似乎依然存在。
以色列是中东地区唯一一个妇女基本权利平等的国家;自1948年以色列独立以来,妇女大量参与经济活动。妇女占任何社会人口的一半。任何不让女性接受高等教育、不让女性担任高级职位或领导职位的社会,在经济上都是搬起石头砸自己的脚。1969年至1973年,以色列有一位女总理果尔达·梅厄,是世界上最早由女性领导的国家之一。话虽如此,以色列和其他任何社会一样,仍有其遗留的 盲目爱国主义问题和无形限制(妇女等在职务升迁上遇到的无形障碍)需要解决。
虽然以色列最初曾短暂地得到苏联的支持(1947-1948),但后来它选择了西方盟友和赞助者: 德国、法国,最终(从1973年起)选择了美国。最终,埃及也紧随其后,转而支持美国,,并在1979年与以色列签署了由美国斡旋达成的和平协议。1994年,以色列与约旦签订了和平条约;随后,阿拉伯联盟攻击以色列的威胁似乎大大减少。
资本主义有很多缺点,但俗话说,它是最糟糕的制度……除了其他制度。以色列慢慢地从社会主义(早期的犹太复国主义)向自由市场经济和高科技产业发展。
美国总统来来去去,但1973年后,美国国防机构认定以色列对他们很重要。毕竟,在以色列,你总是可以停靠一艘航空母舰来运送补给或维修,而不必去检查这周是哪个独裁者在统治这个国家。因此,美国每年向以色列提供约30亿美元的资助,尽管这只是以色列1380亿美元国家预算(2018年)的一小部分。与大多数美国外交政策一样,它是有附加条件的,旨在服务于美国的利益: 这笔钱的很大一部分是以购买美国产品和服务(通常是军事装备)为条件的。据估计,美国有5万个工作岗位依赖于以色列的军事采购。对以色列的援助只是美国对外援助总额的冰山一角,每年总计约430亿美元(阿富汗45亿美元,伊拉克1.8亿美元,埃及1.3亿美元,等等)。
话虽如此,以色列的经济并不严重依赖美国的援助,但两国之间的密切关系对以色列有利,并显示出一种强调技术的亲缘关系,在工业和军事上追求质量上的优势。以色列在政治和文化上对美国的热情和支持度通常很高。
环球旅行
请文明理性发言,请不要发布违规评论,包括但不限于(诋毁、极端、敏感、歧视、色情、引战、人身攻击)等,如发现此类评论,请不要回复,直接举报。网站意见建议请点击 意见反馈
我要纠错&举报
文章地址
纠错类型
备注说明
 
我要举报
文章地址
举报理由
 
打赏评论
1、如果您喜欢此评论,可以对其打赏
2、不鼓励对违规评论(包括但不限于违法、辱骂、歧视等)进行打赏,系统将可能回收对其的打赏
充值