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即使两国在同一阵营中起步,为什么中国如此领先于印度?
2019-12-03 zaky696 15 收藏 纠错&举报
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译文简介:在印度,公民们一直在等待政府为他们做点什么,而不是让自己去在工作中提高创造性,这样他们的税收才不会被偷走,而是会被他们自己有效地花掉。他们这种懒散的态度要归咎于他们的父母,即使他们到了该对自己负责的年龄,他们的父母还是会对他们进行过度保护。中国人勤奋、有创造力,且学习速度更快,所以他们可以创造比我们印度人更富裕的经济。
 译文来源 

原文地址:https://www.quora.com/Why-is-China-so-ahead-of-India-even-when-both-started-from-same-league

 评论翻译 

Rajeev Bhatnagar
There are several reasons for China being ahead of us. You will not find them in textbooks, and reading them will be painful, but here are some important ones:
(i) China had early start:
China began "liberalization" of its economy about 13 years before us. They began when Deng Xiao Ping became the country's China's leader in 1978.
(ii) Voluntary choice vs. Forced on a sick economy:
China began liberalization by choosing that path - it was voluntary & deliberate choice. India did not opt for liberalization but was forced into it by IMF & Work bank in 1991, when we had almost nil foreign exchange to pay for imports like oil. Thus we waited for our economy to become extremely sick before starting.
So our starting point was a sick economy and politically half-hearted effort at that.
(iii) China's advantage: single-party & authoritarian form of Government
China's authoritarian government is far more efficient than Indian set up. Here if centre govt wants to do something then there are two detractors. Firstly opposite party in state will stop it. Secondly people keep protesting endlessly delaying projects. Such oppositions to implementation of development projects are non-existent in China because it is a single-party & authoritarian state.
Because of these reasons our execution of projects is slow in India, takes 2 to 5 times it would take in China, and cost increases.
(iv) China's Labour is has higher productivity:
Chinese labour has higher productivity compared to Indian. It is not only the cumbersome labour laws and over-protective attitude in implementation. I don’t know the reason for it but it is a fact.
By the way, labour unions drove our public sector to sickness. 
(v) China has a Closed / Protectionist economy:
China's economy is completely closed, not open like India. India has allowed foreign companies to control it economy. We have opened our economy to foreign capital - allowed amazon to flourish  We have killed Indian entrepreneurs due to lack of vision, lack of support, shattering dreams shown to them by Govt . I can give dozens of examples.
We import all electronic goods but China manufactures them - why? 
On the other hand, China does not allow foreign capital & enterprise. There is no Google, no Facebook. If you open a manufacturing set-up in China, they will allow it, but..... But once it comes to a shape and can be sinicized, the unions will make it unviable by putting unreasonable demands on foreign management. Then you have to sell it to a Chinese and come out.
(vi) India is under a Mountain of Bureaucracy:
British left us with lots of paperwork - in government and in courts. They were fast in handling the papers. Today, we have allowed paperwork to increase and have become slow in handling it. See how many cases are pending in courts - even Supreme Court has thousands. Look at banks - they ask for collaterals & details of all property owned - but businessmen default and run away. 

中国走在我们前面有几个原因。你在课本上找不到它们,就算找到了阅读它们你也会很痛苦,我在这里提供了一些重要的原因:
(一)中国起步早:
中国经济的“自由化”比我们早了大约13年,他们经济的自由化始于1978年邓小平成为中国领导人的时候。
(二)自愿选择 vs 在经济不景气时做的被迫选择:
中国通过选择这条道路开始了自由化——这是他们自愿的并且是他们深思熟虑后所做的选择。印度没有选择自由化,而是在1991年被国际货币基金组织和世界银行强迫实行自由化的,当时我们几乎没有外汇来支付石油等进口商品。因此,我们在开始自由化之前,我们的经济已经出现了严重问题。
因此,我们自由化的出发点是病态的经济和政治上的缺乏热情努力。
(三)中国的优势: 一党专政的政府形式
中国的权威政府比印度政府的效率高得多。如果印度中央政府想做点什么,那么就会出现两个批评者。首先,国家的另一方会阻止它,其次,人们会不断抗议从而项目会被无休止地拖延。由于中国是一个一党专政的国家,这种反对项目实施的情况在中国是不存在的。
由于这些原因,我们在印度的项目进展缓慢,我们完成项目需要的时间是中国的2到5倍,而且我们需要花费的成本还在增加。
(四) 中国的劳动生产率较高:
中国的劳动生产率高于印度。这不仅是由于印度繁琐的劳动法和过度保护的执行态度。我不知道具体原因,但这是事实。
顺便说一下,印度的工会使我们的公共部门陷入了困境。
(五) 中国经济是封闭/保护主义经济:
中国经济是完全封闭的,不像印度那样开放。印度允许外国公司控制它的经济。我们已经向外国资本开放了我们的经济——允许亚马逊在印度蓬勃发展。我们让印度企业家破产了,因为缺乏远见、缺乏他方的支持,政府粉碎了向他们展示过的梦想。我可以举几十个这样的例子。
我们进口所有的中国制造的电子产品——为什么? 
另一方面,中国不允许有外资和外国企业。在中国没有谷歌也没有脸书。如果你在中国建立生产基地,他们会允许的,但是…基地一旦形成他们就会把它中国化,中国的工会就会对外国管理层提出不合理的要求,去使其无法生存。然后你就必须把它卖给一个中国人才行。
(六) 印度的官僚机构堆积如山:
英国给我们在政府和法庭上留下了大量的文书工作,政府和法庭处理这些文书工作时速度很快。但如今,我们虽然允许文书工作增加,但在处理文书方面却变得缓慢。看看有多少案件在法庭上悬而未决——即使是在最高法院也有数千件。看看银行吧——对你所拥有的所有财产,他们都会要求你提供抵押物并要求你把财产的细节提供给他们——但商人们违约后就全跑掉了。

Lance Chambers
They have a single party government so do not have to accept what can be stupid policies from minor parties. They have a far larger population so domestic consumption is another driver of the economy, they have some of the best brains in the world, graduate many more good graduates every year than any other nation, they collaborate better, support ALL of their citizens, it is driven to put behind them the humiliations of the occupation of Beijing by western nations and Japan, and as a nation they are hard working and totally support their government 
India has a lot of problems. Fractured government with every party trying to bribe people to vote for them so we see thing like reservation going crazy — everyone wants to give reservation now to every different caste. This is impossible when there are over 30,000 castes but still some try. You have police that are incompetent and very corrupt like many politicians. After how many years still cannot solve Rafele issue. Some of Indias member of the highest scientific body in the country has two members who believe that the ancient gods were made from cloning and also the they had guided missiles — how can people like this be member of most important science group?
Please get any copy of Times of India. Read from start to end. Then think on what is wrong in India. 

中国有一个单一政党的政府,所以不必接受来自小党派的愚蠢政策。他们的人口要多得多,所以国内消费是中国经济的另一个驱动力。他们有一些世界上最好的人才, 中国每年毕业生中的优秀毕业生比其他任何国家都多。中国可以让人民更好地进行协作, 并且它支持它所有的公民。中国人不得已先把西方国家和日本曾占领中国的这个耻辱抛在了脑后。作为一个国家的人民,他们努力工作并完全支持他们的政府。
印度有很多问题。印度的政府是分裂的,并且每个政党都试图贿赂人们去为他们投票,所以我们看到了他们为了预留制而发疯这种事情——每一方现在都想给予不同种姓的人预留制。这是不可能的,因为印度有超过3万个种姓,但仍有一些人在尝试做这件事。印度有着无能的警察,而且他们像许多政客一样腐败。过了多少年印度还是不能解决阵风战机的问题。印度最高科学机构的一些成员中有两名成员相信古代的神是克隆出来的,而且他们带领团队研发了导弹——像这样的人怎么能成为最重要的科学团体的成员呢?
请拿一份《印度时报》并从头到尾读,然后你再想想印度出了什么问题。

Malay Mishra
China is ahead of India(economically) basically because of few reasons mentioned below in no order of priority.
They adapted reforms earlier
They controlled population to their benefit - this is debatable
They created infrastructure
They encouraged local Chinese companies by framing policies around them, Alibaba, Baidu, Wechat etc.
They don’t care for what others do they care for only what they have to do
They crush dissent with a force and in manner which will never be acceptable in India
They value their culture a lot and don’t sit silent when others attack their culture
There is a lot which is right and wrong with China but the fact is they are a power to reckon.

中国在经济上领先印度,基本上是因为下面提到的几个原因,没有优先顺序。
1. 他们更早地进行了改革。
2. 他们为了自己的利益去控制世界上其它国家的人民——这是有争议的。
3. 他们建设了基础设施。
4. 他们通过制定政策来鼓励中国本土公司,如阿里巴巴、百度、微信等。
5. 他们不在乎别人做什么,他们只在乎自己必须做什么。
6. 他们用武力和印度永远不会被接受的方式镇压不同意见。
7. 他们非常重视自己的文化,当别人攻击他们的文化时,他们不会保持沉默的。
关于中国有很多是与非,但事实是,他们确实拥有强大实力。

Neena Kumtakar
One of the reasons why india is behind china, remains the largest importer of defence equipment in the world, unable to develop any equipment and importing from very small countries like israel is because extremely fraud liar corrupt security and intelligence agencies are allowed to run amok without questioned about their atrocities on harmless indian citizens , falsely labeling harmless hardworking engineers with a good JEE rank as a security threat without any proof at all, to hold them virtual prisoner, ensure that they get no paying work in india at all
China is a meritocracy, while indian governments wastes the best engineering talent in the country.

印度落后于中国的原因之一是,印度仍然是世界上最大的国防设备进口国,它自己无法开发任何国防设备。印度从像以色列这样的小国进口国防设备,因为在印度,大骗子、腐败的安全和情报机构可以肆无忌惮地对无辜的印度公民实施暴行。 在没有任何证据的情况下,他们会错误地把勤奋工作的工程师当作是对安全的威胁,他们把这些工程师当成囚犯,并让他们在印度得不到任何有报酬的工作。
中国是一个任人唯贤的国家,而印度政府浪费了该国最优秀的工程人才。

Mathew Cherian
In India the citizen keep waiting for the government to do something for them, instead of being creative in their work, so that taxes won't pilfer away, rather will be efficiently spend. Sloppy attitude originating from parenthood sponfeeding children, even when they reach age to be responsible for themselves
Chinese are hardworking, and creative, learn faster and so they can create economies that create wealth than we Indians can achieve.

在印度,公民们一直在等待政府为他们做点什么,而不是让自己去在工作中提高创造性,这样他们的税收才不会被偷走,而是会被他们自己有效地花掉。他们这种懒散的态度要归咎于他们的父母,即使他们到了该对自己负责的年龄,他们的父母还是会对他们进行过度保护。
中国人勤奋、有创造力,且学习速度更快,所以他们可以创造比我们印度人更富裕的经济。

Pravinchandra G Dhameliya
Our policy makers were slow to react.
China has put aside socialism in 1970 and India draged it wholly till 1991 and draggaing it even today deadbody of socialism 50–60 % rotten part.
That is the only differance.
They were projecting Indian work force as most lazy in the world to hide their utter failure of policy making.
Till 1991 it was just impossible to earn any money legally.
Even today ease if doing bisiness we are not in top 50 countries, Thanks to rotten bidy if neruvian socialism.

我们的政策制定者反应迟缓。
中国在1970年就把社会主义放在了一边,印度把它拖到1991年才做,直到今天还拖着社会主义50% - 60%的腐烂部分。
这是中印之间唯一的区别。
政策制定者把印度的劳动人民说成是世界上最懒惰的人,以此来掩盖他们在政策制定上的彻底失败。
就算到了1991年,在印度合法挣钱仍是不可能的。
即使在今天,我们也没能进入世界排名前50名,这都是受腐朽的苏联式的社会主义所累。

Ashok Ghai
Chinese workers are more focussed in their work due to totalitarian regime there. Indians are more involved in useless thoughts and actions due to freedom to do whatever they like. But, democreacy has its advantages, and once the country comes on right track, we may surge ahead of China. Also, there is every possibility that India and China would coperate each other in their progress.

由于中国的集权主义政权,中国工人更专注于他们的工作。印度人更容易陷入无用的想法和行动中,因为他们可以自由地做他们想做的事。但是,民主有它的好处,一旦国家走上正轨,我们可能会超过中国。此外,印度和中国完全有可能在发展中相互合作。

Achuthan Karnnan
China is practically a Dictatorship while India is a Democracy.
That makes all the difference.
There is no way you can make a brand new highway within 5 years in india if it happents to pass through a populated area.
In china,the only concern is engineering hurdles.People are just moved out of the way . No Questions Asked.
As an Indian i feel lucky I'm not in China.

中国实际上是一个独裁国家,而印度是一个民主国家。
这就是区别所在。
在印度,如果你碰巧要穿过人口稠密的地区,你就不可能在5年内建成一条全新的高速公路。
在中国,人们唯一需要担心的是工程方面的障碍。人们会被迁走,这是毋庸置疑的。
作为一个印度人,我很幸运我不在中国。

Umesh Kumar Rai
Until Late 70s, China and India were on the same league. poverty was similar in both countries. But post early 80s, China started economic reforms which we didn’t. And that fuled Chinese economic growth towards double digit growth for the next 3 decades. Its not that India didn’t grow during this time. But the difference in the growth rate of both countries was dramaticaly different because of which China is so ahead today compared to India.

直到70年代末,中国和印度还一直是处于同一水平的,那之前两国的贫困情况相似。但80年代初,中国开始了经济改革,而我们没有。这使中国经济在未来30年实现了两位数的增长。这并不是说印度在这段时间没有增长。但这两个国家在增长率上的差异是显著的。因此与印度相比,中国如今是如此的领先。

Harishwr K
India opted for democracy and populist socialist state and China opted for Communist and later followed it up with Capitalistic shades of communist, socialist state.
Give n take, people in India are much more suitable to adapt to any circumstances, rather to top driven state politics, that of China.

印度选择了民主和民粹的社会主义,而中国选择了共产主义,但在中国后来又出现了带有资本主义色彩的社会主义。
恕我直言,相较于中国的国家政治,印度政府更善于适应政治环境。

Jim Dorcy
One answer that no one will tell you! China is not democratic and they pushed their people for change, India being a democracy suffers from all flip sides f democracy e.g., vote bank politics, lack of political will to take up some reforms and unionism and hooliganism.

没人会告诉你答案的! 中国不是民主国家,他们只会逼迫他们的人民去改变,而印度是一个民主国家,它遭受了民主带来的所有负面影响,例如,银行政治投票、缺乏政治意愿去进行改革、工会主义和流氓行为。

Avkrishna Rao
China was not under Rougish Aristocratic British rule which has plunder Indian property and even people!
That's enough reason for India's sluggish progress

中国曾经没有处于英国的野蛮的贵族统治之下,而英国对印度的的统治掠夺了印度的财产甚至夺去了印度人民的生命!
这就是印度经济发展缓慢的一个充分的理由。
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